Catalogue of the sanctuaries of Roman Dacia (106-271 A. D.)

This chapter is part of a larger work entitled “Sanctuaries of Roman Dacia. A catalogue of sacralised places in shared and secondary spaces. In: Jahrbuch des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz, Bd. 62, 2015.

The work of A. R. Pescaru and D. Alicu enrolled 85 “temples”. Although, in their theoretical introduction they presented a classical, Vitruvian concept of Roman temple architecture[1], the examples from their catalogue enrols also assembly houses of small group religions, such as the mithraeum, dolichenum, serapeum, iseum, etc[2]. The architectural heterogeneity and local variety of these examples show, that such places cannot be typologize strictly after some architectural features[3]. This catalogue, following the methodology presented in the introduction, enlists not only the Roman temples, but a large variety of spaces, where groups were participating in religious communication and experiences, named here as sacralised spaces. Due to the problematic state of research focusing on domestic (primary) places from the province, I omit this category, mentioning here only the shared (public) and secondary spaces where religious communication occurred. The catalogue will present also the case studies from Pescaru-Alicu’s work, with modifications and corrections and will follow their three main categories, dividing the case studies in archaeologically attested (I.1-55), epigraphically attested (II.1-19) and presumed sanctuaries (III.1-67). In the first category I included only the sites where systematic or preventive archaeological investigation took place since the 19th century. The second category enlists the sites where the epigraphic record mentions the exact type of building or a particular architectural element (porticum, etc.). The third category enlists all sacralised places in shared and public spaces, which were not systematically excavated or unanimously accepted as sanctuaries. Identifying a sacralised space in Roman context is a difficult task, especially, when a large part of the materiality of religious communication was discovered long time before systematic excavations and responsible publications. Selecting these examples I took in consideration the following criteria: 1) spaces, where more than one altar, statue or other type of votive offering was found; 2) spaces, where the remains of Roman building were attested together with votive offerings; 3) spaces, which were identified as sanctuary by older literature based exclusively on the architectural features of the building. Although, I’m aware, that the discovery of several altars in an undocumented spot is not enough proof to name a place or a context directly as a sanctuary, this list intends to show not only the possibility of spaces used in religious communication in Roman Dacia, but also, the great loss of Romanian archaeology in the last one century and beyond. Some settlements, such as Călan, known from the Tabula Peutingeriana as a famous thermal bath complex could have a healing sanctuary, although the archaeological material cannot prove this. Similarly, the context of discovery of the Dolichenian statue from Amărăștii de Sus indicate the possible existence of a sanctuary[4]. The number of sacralised spaces with singular finds – especially in the less investigated rural environments – are much higher, but their context doesn’t allow a more precise interpretation[5]. Similarly, the existence of an aedes signorum can be presumed in most of the Roman forts of Dacia, although only a part of them were attested archaeologically[6].

Instead of following the old and anachronistic categories associating spaces with “Graeco-Roman” and “Oriental” divinities, I will simply enrol them in alphabetical order of the settlements (Roman and contemporary names). Due to the incoherence between ancient and modern terminologies of sanctuaries and building types[7], I will follow a minimalist terminology, keeping the ancient denomination (templum, aedes, fanum) only in those cases where it was attested epigraphically and naming the rest of the cases as “sanctuary”, following the definition presented above. I introduced in the catalogue of archaeologically attested sites the places of worship from the excavated Roman forts of Dacia, although I aware, that their identification as aedes signorum in most of the cases are based on architectural canon and literary traditions and not always a materiality of religious experiences. Similarly to this, the identification of some sacralised spaces as capitolia can be very hypothetical in provincial archaeology as it was recently shown[8].

In some cases, I preserved the traditional approach, associating a place with a single divinity, which dominates the materiality of the sanctuary, although as I mentioned in the introduction, in a polytheistic society – and especially in the case study of Dacia – sacralised spaces were usually dedicated to multiple divinities, “hosted” by a tutelary one. Each archaeological site has its Latin and contemporary Romanian and Hungarian names, a short historical and archaeological review of the settlement, location (GPS data based on Google Maps coordinates), a figure representing the plan of the building, dimensions, description, archaeological repertory and a short bibliography.

I. Archaeologically attested sanctuaries of Roman Dacia

Alburnus Maior (Roșia Montană, Verespatak, jud. Alba)

Alburnus Maior and its environment was the major Roman mining centre of Roman Dacia, situated in the middle of the Apuseni Mountains, which was part of the Aurariae Dacicae, the golden district of Dacia and later, Dacia Superior. Since 106 A. D. or after some opinions, even in the period of the Dacian Kingdom, the settlement developed in the vicinity of the gold mines (fig. 8). The Roman settlement of Alburnus Maior was inhabited by numerous Illyrian groups, organised in kastella. The material evidence of the religious communication of these groups and the civilians of the settlement shows a specific Illyrian pantheon appropriated to the new, Dacian environment. Beside the indigenous Illyrian divinities from Dalmatia, epigraphic material records also the various cults from Italy too. This variety and religious individuation of these ethnic groups is reflected also in the dynamics of sacralised spaces from Alburnus Maior, predominated by secondary spaces used by small religious groups, formed especially on ethnic and cultural identities. The settlement has more than 100 votive inscriptions and due to its contemporary political and environmental importance, it is one of the best researched Roman conurbations of Dacia. On the religious life of Alburnus Maior see: Piso 2004; Nemeti 2004, 91-101; Ardevan 2004; Ardevan et al. 2007, 67-72; Ciongradi 2009; 2014; Schäfer 2009; Ciobanu 2010; Nemeti / Nemeti 2010, 109-133. – See also Pundt 2012.

I.1 Sanctuary of the kastellum Ansium

Location: Southwest to the modern settlement of Roșia Montană, in the vicinity of the lake called Tăul Găuri on the so called Hăbad Site (approx. coordinates: 46.298045, 23.111719; fig. 9). – Dimensions: a large area near the Roman road leading to the lake Tăul Găuri and a Roman mining gallery was identified with several small compartments. Each compartment is less, than 6 m x 5 m, although the overall structure of the building complex is unknown. – Description: the site (known also as the lucus or area sacra from Hăbad) was discovered and excavated in 1983-1984 and later in 2000-2001. In the first seasons, 27 altars were found in small rooms near the Roman road, few meters from a Roman mining gallery. The altars were found in two distinguished groups: one group in a small compartment just in front of the entrance of the Roman mine, another one in the next room, closer to the road. The distribution of the altars suggest, that the site was used by at least two different groups or ethnic communities, as the inscriptions could indicate this too. Later seven other altars were found in this site. The Illyrian group who used this sacralised space were dedicating for several divinities from their homeland. The sanctuary seems to be a sacralised space of several Illyrian groups forming a civitas peregrina, named as kastellum Ansium. Several different ethnic and religious groups seem to use this site, among them also a Bacchic collegium (ILD 365). – Archaeological repertory: 34 inscriptions, lamps and construction material from the buildings. – Bibliography: Wollmann 1985-6, 253-294; Damian et al. 2003, 147-190; Piso 2004; Ardevan 2004; Ardevan et al. 2007; Ciograndi 2009; Nemeti / Nemeti 2010.

I.2 Sanctuary of the kastellum Baridustarum/Galatians?

Location: SV to the modern settlement of Roșia Montană, between the Hăbad hill and the Găuri and Nanului valleys at the Székely Site (fig. 10). – Dimensions: the foundation of the rectangular building measures 18.5 m x 12.85 m. – Description: known also as the edifice T I., the sanctuary was excavated in 2001, during a rescue excavation, when a part of the kastellum Baridustarum was identified. The building had four compartments (A-D) used already from the period of Trajan. In this case, the epigraphic altars attest the cult of Neptunus, Mercurius, Apollo and probably, Jupiter Sardendenos, Narenus and Jupiter Sittakomikos, worshiped here as their Dii Patrii. It is possible, that this area however was used by two different groups: Galatians (which are attested in Alburnus Maior by the collegium Iovis Cerneni, collegium of Jupiter Sardendenos and collegium of Narenus. While the excavators of the site suggested, that the Galatian altars came from the same site, S. Nemeti claimed, that the Galatian collegiae had a separate sacralised site in this area (Nemeti 2005, 249-245).

. – Archaeological repertory: six altars were found in 1936 and five more in 2001. A rich ceramic material consisted of 35 items were also published. – Bibliography: Damian et al. 2003, 253-263; Ardevan 2004; Nemeti 2005, 249-252; Ciongradi 2009.

I.3 Sanctuary of the Genius of collegium sardeatum

Location: SV to the modern settlement of Roșia Montană, between the Hăbad hill and the Găuri and Nanului valleys at the Drumuș Site (coordinates: 46.1756, 23.0638; fig. 11). – Dimensions: trapezoidal formed building, measuring 11.35 m x 23.6 m. – Description: known also as the edifice T II, the sanctuary was excavated in September-October 2001, during a rescue excavation, when a part of the kastellum Baridustarum was identified. The building follows the classical building type of Hellenic dining halls of small group religions and associations. Marked with two podia, the building ends in the SE part with a cella. It was associated with the regular dining of the collegium sardeatum. The vicinity of the local cemetery could indicate also a relationship with burial rites and funerary commemorations. The altars are dedicated to the Genius of the collegium sardeatum, Ianus Geminus, Terra Mater, IOM and to Apollo Piruniinus (Pirunenus). The building and the collegium was part of the kastellum Baridustarum. – Archaeological repertory: 17 altars were discovered. 32 ceramic artefacts were also published by the excavators. – Bibliography: Damian et al. 2003, 285-333; Ardevan 2004; Ciongradi 2009; Diaconescu 2011, 162-167.

I.4 Sanctuary of the Delmatae

Location: on a plateau located next to the bottom of a peak that dominates the Western side of Nanului Valley, known as the Dalea Site (coordinates: 46.1757, 23.0626; fig. 12). – Dimensions: the building complex is partially preserved and had multiple compartments. The square, inner courtyard measures 17.7 m x 19 m. the whole precinct could measure 34 m x 25 m. – Description: known also as the sacred space of Dalea Site, the sanctuary was excavated in August-October 2001, during a rescue excavation. The building was a monumental one, with a large portico, inner courtyard, which was possibly, open aired. Three rooms were found West to the portico. The nine altars found in two separate lines with 2 m distance from each other seem to mark two large events of a religious group. It is not sure, if the building was used by the kastellum Baridustarum, or as it was suggested by R. Ardevan, by the Delmatae. The inscriptions attests various divinities, one of them, the so called Apio Dalmatarum is attested for the first time. – Archaeological repertory: nine altars were discovered. 32 ceramic artefacts were also published by the excavators. – Bibliography: Damian et al. 2003, 285-333; Ardevan 2004; Ciongradi 2009; Diaconescu 2011, 162-167.

Apulum (Alba Iulia, Gyulafehérvár, Karlsburg; jud. Alba)

The conurbation of Apulum was founded in the vicinity or on the territory of the Dacian tribe of Apuli in the Mureș valley and it consisted of four major territories: the legionary fort of the XIII Gemina legion (fig. 13), the civilian settlement (pagus) found 2.2 km south of the fort, later Municipium Aurelium Apulensis and since 194 A. D. Colonia Aurelia Apulensis (fig. 14), the military canabae around the fort, after 194 A. D. known as Municipium Septimium Apulense and the Palace of the Governors (praetorium consularis). This urban centre became the largest and most important military, economic and cultural hub of Dacia Superior and the entire province too. Populated with large groups from Pannoniae, Asia Minor and Thracia, but also from Syria and other provinces the various forms of religious communication, appropriation and space sacralisation produced almost a quarter of the material known from the entire province. The sacralised spaces attested in the conurbation were serving not only the local population, but also played an important role as regional religious centres. Intense object and human mobilities can be attested between Apulum and various cities of the Publicum Portorium Illyrici, especially with Sarmizegetusa, Ampelum, Poetovio and Aquincum, but iconographic analogies proves a direct connection between religious groups from Londinium and Boppard too. Apulum served also as an important centre of producing material objects for religious communication and had a certain impact on local iconographic and visual language of the provincial Roman art of Dacia. A large part of the archaeological material known from excavations was published in the Digital Map of Apulum (DMA). The first synthesis on the religious life of the conurbation was made by Pál Király in 1892 and later by Alexandru Popa in 1975 (see also Király 1892; Popa 1975). Since than, numerous individual objects or short reports were published on votive monuments and sacralised spaces, sanctuaries, focusing especially on the cult of Liber Pater, Mercurius, Apollo, Asclepius, Mithras or Jupiter (Szabó 2014b; 2015b, Szabó forthcoming).

Based on the large amount of votive material found in the conurbation, the number of sacralised spaces in Apulum was probably much higher than the archaeologically or epigraphically attested sanctuaries suggest. Based on the archaeological material, the existence of a sanctuary dedicated to Jupiter Zbelsurdos, Hekate, Cealestis-Dea Syria and Sucellus-Nantosuelta/Aeracura is also plausible.

I.5 Aedes signorum/principia

Location: centre of the castra legionis XIII Geminae, today in the Vauban fortress, on the Piața Cetății/former Custozza Park (coordinates: 46.068430, 23.572189; fig. 15). – Dimensions: the exact size of the building is unknown, there is no official publication yet. – Description: The localization of the Principia was supposed already in the end of the 19th century during the first systematic excavations on the territory of the fort and in the major works related to the legio XIII Geminae and the fort (Gudea 2014, 545-560). There is no written report on the major urban development and the possible archaeological finds in the area of the principia (Custozza Park) and the surroundings. The first inscription and rescue excavation which identified the principia was carried on in 1952 during canalization near the current building of the “1 Decembrie 1918 University” (Crișan 1954, 603. – AE 1956, 204.). The next important archaeological find was discovered in 2006, the year which marked the beginning of the radical transformation of the Custozza Park and the territory of the castra legionis XIII Geminae (Moga / Piso / Drîmbărean 2008, 177.). Similarly, the excavations between 20 August amd 22 September 2011 revealed numerous important inscriptions, among them a monumental honorary plaque dedicated to emperor Caracalla and Iulia Domna, an altar for Serapis and a votive column dedicated to Jupiter (Cupcea / Deac / Inel forthcoming). The excavation – opened in an area of at least 50 m x 50 m – was the largest ever inside of the territory of the castra, revealing numerous compartments (C1, C2, C3), walls, columns and hypocaust system of the Principia. One of the compartments is an apsidal room with hypocaust system, followed by an open air forum, wrapped by large, rectangular stone slabs. The area could serve important information about the water supply of the principia and generally, the castra legionis itself due to the complex system of canalization near the aedes. It is important to mention, that in many cases (Faßbinder 2010, 97), the principia is surrounded by channels, which can suggest a much splendid interior of the space, vegetation, which played an important role in the sacralization of the space. About another, large section of the principia and the central part of the castra (named as S2p) appeared only a short report in the local press, without mentioning the exact functionality and role of the compartments (Cupcea / Deac / Inel forthcoming). – Archaeological repertory: the new finds are unpublished. The press conference reported numerous votive inscriptions, honorary plaques, monumental architectural elements, stamped bricks and large amount of ceramic material. Numerous votive monuments found reused on the territory of the Vauban fort could stand in the principia or the praetorium. – Bibliography: Crișan 1954; Moga / Piso / Drîmbărean 2008; Gudea 2014, 545-560; Heidenreich 2013, cat. nos 403-429; Cupcea / Deac / Inel forthcoming.

Numerous other votive monuments were found on the territory of the Roman fort, most of them however in secondary, reused position. Two notable cases, the so called “mithraeum” and the “shrine of Nemesis” in the fort – as it appears in the Romanian literature and press – can’t be interpreted as sanctuaries: Szabó 2014d, 533, especially note 3. 5.

I.6 Liber Pater shrine

Location: NV corner of the Colonia Aurelia Apulensis (coordinates: 46.050488, 23.564560; fig. 16). – Dimensions: rectangular building with multiple chambers (total length: 43 m, width: 20 m). The plan of the building and it’s surrounding is uncertain. – Description: rectangular complex of buildings with a forecourt, positioned near a street of the conurbation. The entrance area faced a rectangular hall-like enclosure measuring about 23.5 m x 8.5 m. It is possible, that this area was a garden, as the archaeobotanical analysis already suggested  (Ciută 2010, 185-199). Several rooms were grouped around this central area. To the north, an open hall (probably a stibadium) was bounded by the wall that enclosed the sanctuary area. Four pits or favissae (A-D) were found in the hall area. – Archaeological repertory: a part of the epigraphic material was published (IDR III/5, 236-237. 244. 370-371. – Haynes 2005, 44. – Sicoe 2014, 149 no. 23.). Similarly, the statuary material is published (Diaconescu 2001, 161-176. – Schäfer 2015). A part of the terracotta, ceramic and glass material was also published and some of the archaeobotanical and zoological analysis were reported (Ruscu 1992, 125-134. – Fiedler / Höpken 2002, 375-390. – Egri 2005, 85-87). Important to mention, that one or more spaces dedicated to Liber Pater were presumed already before the discovery of the shrine, based on two plaques discovered in the 19th century (IDR III/5, 242). – Bibliography: although there is a long lists of publications related to the sanctuary, a comprehensive monograph of the excavation is still not published. For complete list of the publications see: BRRD I 124. 306-307. 311. 316; II 227. 233. 236. 238-239. 240-243. 247. 261. 263-268; ABRRD; see also: Haynes 2014.

I.7 Mithraeum

Location: Bulevardul 1 Decembrie 1918, southwest part of the Roman fort, probably on the territory of the canabae, later Municipium Septimium Apulense , part of an extra muros area with numerous sacralized spaces (coordinates: 46.066403, 23.565013; fig. 17). – Dimensions: the whole building is not yet revealed. The excavated area revealed more than 75% of the sanctuary on a surface of 17 m x 9 m in 2013 and further parts and annexes in 2014. – Description: known as “mithraeum III” the building actually is the first sanctuary dedicated to Mithras excavated systematically in Alba Iulia. The structure of the building follows a general architectural and spatial tendency of the Mithras sanctuaries, being divided in three main part: a pronaos (antechamber) in the SE, a naos with two benches and an additional room in the NE part. The first campaign revealed that the building had a brick elevation. The inferior part of the building was built by small size stones. The excavation also revealed a pit under the annexed building, which predates the sanctuary and a part of a rectangular timber structure. The stratigraphy was severely damaged and modified by the medieval (12 th-13th century) and modern (17 th-18th century) layers and interventions. – Archaeological repertory: the finds are not yet published. The recovered inventory consists of four altars, architectural elements, pottery, objects made of glass, iron, bronze, bone, stone and a large quantity of animal bones. Palynological, archaeobotanical, archaeozological, soil and radiocarbon samples were also collected (Rustoiu et al. 2014, 17.). – Bibliography: Rustoiu et al. 2014; 2015; Szabó 2015b; Egri / McCarty / Rustoiu / Inel 2018.

I.8 Praetorium consularis

 Location: the palace of the governor was never fully excavated. Recent excavations identified the rest of the building in the area of the Str. Munteniei 15-17 (coordinates: 46.065572, 23.577662; fig. 18). – Dimensions: the building complex was discovered only partially in three phases of excavation between 1888 and 2012. More than 14.000 m2 were revealed and identified as the palace of the governor in more than 266 rooms and annexes discovered by Béla Cserni and numerous others by Alexandru Popa, Ion Berciu and Viorica Rusu-Bolindeț. – Description: although the building complex didn’t mean to be a sanctuary, the finds suggest a vivid religious life in the palace. At least five places were identified, where votive objects were found, however the majority of the rooms has an unknown functionality. Cserni describes the place where the Minerva and Nemesis altar was found as a peristyl building, with several columns still preserved (Cserni 1897, 42-43). Schäfer cites Cserni from 1897 about a possible “mithreaum” found in the palace, however there are no inscriptions or other sources proving this (Schäfer 2014, 450, nos 246-247). A possible shrine of Epona, Nemesis and a Serapaeum was suggested by later scholars (Piso 1995a; Deac / Varga 2014). After Ioan Piso, the worship of the Capitoline triad could be also possible in the praetorium consularis, where a shrine dedicated to them should exist. The worship of Apollo, Deus Aeternus, Mercurius, Diana, Aesculapius, Hercules, Mars, Virtus Romana, Liber Pater, Silvanus/Pan and Fortuna were attributed to the staff of the governor, however the majority of the monuments has an unknown provenience. The presence of bronze, imperial statues and the Genius Imperatoris suggest also the cult of the emperor. The few cases, where the votive monuments were found suggest, that the palace of the governor was place of individual/domestic and communal worship too. The cults are strictly related to the senatorial preferences of the 2nd/3rd centuries A. D., only the cult of Epona could be interpreted as a divinity related to the singulares, the personal guards of the governor (Várhelyi 2010). – Archaeological repertory: two silver plates representing Fortuna and Mercurius, a fragment of an Apollo Belvedere, a bust of Diana, a head of Iuno, a relief of the Thracian Rider and a rich epigraphic material on altars, statue bases and funerary monuments (IDR III/5. 61. 68-71. 90. 96. 135. 138. 142. 166. 178. 201. 244. 263. 291. 295. 317. 319. 358. 375. 378. 453-454. 544. 594. 621). – Bibliography: Ota 2006, 231-236; Rusu Bolindeț et al. 2011; F. Schäfer 2014, 265-287. 442-451; Cupcea 2015; Varga 2016; Ota / Almănaju 2016.

Arcobadara/Arcobara? (Ilișua, Alsóilosva; jud. Bistrița Năsăud)

Roman settlement in Dacia Porolissensis, on the Northern border of the province. Formed probably in the vicinity of a Dacian settlement or on the territory of an indigenous tribe, the first, Trajanic earth-timber camp was later transformed in the Hadrianic period by the ala I. Tungrorum Frontoniana. In vicinity of the camp, a vicus was formed, identified recently as Arcobadara or Arcobara, which had also a territorium in the nearby. Although, several altars and small finds proves the existence of sacralised spaces in the vicus too, there are no archaeological evidence yet for sanctuaries (Nemeti 2010; 2014). As in many Roman forts, several smaller compartments were transformed into sacralised spaces/places of worship. K. Torma mentioned, that the two, Greek inscriptions dedicated to Asclepius and Hygeia were found in the area of the Principia, where certainly existed a valetudinarium or a shrine for the healing divinities.

I.9 Aedes signorum/principia

Location: in the centre of the Roman auxiliary fort, which is around 500 m SE to the modern village, at the point called Orășel. The building of the principia is barely visible today (coordinates: 47.211386, 24.100533; fig. 19). – Dimensions: the principia probably had multiple phases, but it is not well researched. The last excavation revealed a building of 34 m x 32.4 m, while the aedes has 7 m x 6.3 m. – Description: although the fort was known from the mid-19th century, the principia and the aedes was researched systematically only in the end of the 1970’s. The small chapter is one of the six rooms attested in the SV part of the principa. – Archaeological repertory: the fort was severely looted already in the 19th century. No finds were attested in this area. See also: ILD 796-801. – Bibliography: Gudea 1997, 53-54; Marcu 2009, 78-80; Nemeti 2014.

Buciumi (Vármező, jud. Sălaj)

Roman auxiliary fort and its vicus formed in the Northern border of Dacia Porolissensis. Severely looted in the Middle ages, the fort was systematically excavated in the 1960-1970’s. The vicus is partially overlapped by the contemporary settlement of Buciumi. Certain religious communication forms were attested in the barracks of the fort too (Petruț 2015).

I.10 Aedes signorum/principia

Location: in the centre of the Roman auxiliary fort. The building of the principa is integrally restored (coordinates: 46.3921, 23.7643; fig. 20). – Dimensions: the sacralised space was part of the principia, which had rectangular, 26 m x 32 m foundation, divided in several small compartments in the Southern part. – Description: the aedes signorum was identified in the southern back of the principia as a small room of 4.8 m x 5.7 m. In the middle of the room a stone and brick trestle was attested measuring 0.95 m x 0.95 m. It could serve as a central altar or statue base. – Archaeological repertory: no epigraphic or figurative monuments were attested. See also: ILD 633. – Bibliography: Gudea 1997, 42-43; Marcu 2009, 38-40.

Călugăreni (Mikháza, jud. Mureș)

Roman auxiliary fort and its vicus formed on the Eastern Limes of Dacia. The vicus is less researched. An inscription (CIL III 944 = IDR III/4, 215) mentions the cult of Adrastia from Phrygia and the presence of a collegium utriculariorum, specialized probably in wine trade. Their sacralised space was not yet identified archaeologically (Liu 2009, 137. – Carbó Garcia 2010, 307-308. 937).

I.11 Aedes signorum/principia

Location: in the centre of the Roman auxiliary fort. The building of the principia is partially revealed (coordinates: 46.626476, 24.875993; fig. 21). – Dimensions: the principia is partially revealed. The territory of the building complex can be reconstructed based on the geophysical measurements: 33 m x 26 m. – Description: the aedes signorum was identified in the southern back of the principia based mostly on analogies from other auxiliary forts. Based on the geophysical measurements from 2010, new excavations from 2013 onwards revealed a large part of the small compartments in the Western part of the principia. – Archaeological repertory: no archaeological material was published yet. – Bibliography: Pánczél 2015.

Câmpulung-Jidova (jud. Argeș)

Roman auxiliary fort and its vicus in Dacia Inferior (later Malvensis) on the SN border of the province. The excavations revealed only parts of the fort; the vicus was not researched yet.

I.12 Aedes signorum/principia

Location: in the centre of the Roman auxiliary fort, SE to the modern settlement, on the spot called Jidova or Cetate (fig. 22). – Dimensions: the Principia measured 34.3 m x 30.4 m, while the aedes 5.5 m x 6.3 m. Description: two forts were identified next to each other already in the 19th century. The second, bigger fort was excavated again in the 1970’s. The principia was almost fully excavated. The aedes was identified again in the Eastern part of the principia, based on the topography of the compartment, as the central room from the three compartments attested. – Archaeological repertory: unpublished. – Bibliography: Gudea 1997, 80-81; Marcu 2009, 197-198.

Cigmău (Csigmó; jud. Hunedoara)

Roman auxiliary fort and its vicus attested on several points on a large area (named by locals as “Turiac, Pogradie”). The vicus is less researched, an altar dedicated to Hercules was found in the 19th century. The fort was responsible for Germisara, the famous Roman bath complex too.

I.13 Aedes signorum/principia

Location: in the centre of the Roman auxiliary fort on the spot called Cetatea uriasilor or Progadie. The building of the principia is partially revealed (coordinates: 45.905409, 23.165374; fig. 23). Important to mention the small, subterranean chamber (possibly an aerarium) identified below the aedes. – Archaeological repertory: no archaeological material was published yet. – Bibliography: Gudea 1997, 103-104; Marcu 2009, 122-126.

Cumidava (Rășnov, Barcarozsnyó, Rosenau; jud. Brașov)

Roman auxiliary fort and its vicus on the Northern part of the limes of Dacia (Inferior) Malvensis. The vicus was not researched yet.

I.14 Aedes signorum/principia

Location: in the centre of the Roman auxiliary fort. A large part of the Principia was revealed and still preserved on the field (coordinates: 45.619144, 25.441702; fig. 24). – Dimensions: the principia measures 24.5 m x 21 m while the central aedes approx. 4 m x 3,3 m. – Description: the aedes signorum was identified in the SV part of the principia. It is limited by two, multicomparted rooms, giving a central position to the aedes. – Archaeological repertory: no archaeological material was published. – Bibliography: Gudea 1997, 66; Marcu 2009, 218-220.

Decea Mureșului (Marosdécse, jud. Mureș)

Roman settlement, probably part of the military vicus identified on four major spots in the area of the contemporary village of Decea Mureșului. Two statues (one of them probably a representation of Ceres) were discovered without a precise archaeological context (Gudea 2009, 281-282).

I.15 Mithraeum

Location: uncertain. The description of Károly Herepei is confusing and it is hard to establish the position of the sanctuary. Approx. 300 m from the Roman road between the auxiliary fort and the modern village of Decea (Approx. coordinates: 46.3921, 23.7643; fig. 25). – Dimensions: partially revealed. The known structure was probably the naos itself, consisting a rectangular building of 4.15 m x 4.65 m. Description: the sanctuary was reported shortly by Károly Herepei in his journal, discovered after 1888. The mithraeum seems to be far from the military vicus, in the vicinity of the imperial road, the artery of economic and military communication within the province, which suggest, that it was a rural sanctuary, used irregularly. Its position suggest also, the Romans integrated the natural elements (the slope of a hill) into this sacralised space, recreating the Mithraic cosmos as a spelaeum. – Archaeological repertory: three altars found in the sanctuary. Based on the manuscript of K. Herepei, Takács mentioned also ceramic material, bones and painted wall fragments. – Bibliography: Takács 1987; Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 78; Sicoe 2014, 168, cat. nos 59-61.

Drobeta (Drobeta Turnu-Severin; Szörénytornya, Szörényvár; jud. Turnu-Severin)

Roman auxiliary fort and civilian settlement formed on the Northern bank of the Danube, on the Limes of Dacia Inferior, later Malvensis. Due to the Roman bridge of Trajan it became an important commercial, military and economic hub and costume centre of the Publicum Portorium Illyrici (municipium during the reign of Hadrian, colonia after 194 A. D.). Beside the four attested or presumed sanctuaries, the number of sacralised spaces must be much numerous, based on the rich archaeological material of religious communication.

I.16 Aedes signorum/principia

Location: in the centre of the Roman auxiliary fort. The principa was long time ago fully excavated and it is partially restored on the filed as part of the archaeological park (coordinates: 44.624847, 22.667887; fig. 26). – Dimensions: the principia measures approx. 35 m x 40 m, while the aedes 7 m x 5 m. – Description: one of the most well known and systematically excavated forts of Roman Dacia, the auxiliary castra of Drobeta was in use almost continuously for five centuries, having several phases and reconstructions. The so called Trajanic fort had a large sized principia, occupying 6,4 % of the fort’s territory. The building was following the model of the forum type principiae, having a colonnade with ten columns in front and a large square inside. The aedes was identified as the central, apsidal building with a portico with steps in front of it. The plan of the building suggest, that the aedes had also several reconstructions already in the 102-271 A. D. period. – Archaeological repertory: the fort has a research history of 80 years, but a large part of the archaeological material has an unsecure topography or would need a systematic reanalysis. Several votive dedications were found from the territory of the fort. See: IDR II, 18-19. 21. 29. – Bibliography: Marcu 2009, 129-133.

Germisara (Geoagiu-Băi, Feredőgyógy, Algyógy, Gergesdorf; jud. Hunedoara)

Dacian settlement formed around the natural cavity of hot springs, transformed in baths. In Roman times it became one of the major healing centres of the province (fig. 4). Close to the auxiliary fort of Cigmău and its vicus some of the finds have unsecure provenience and it could belong to the same administrative territorium of the fort. The attestation of a collegium Galatorum suggest (IDR III/3, 234), that as in the case of Apulum and other settlements, some groups with a strong ethnic/cultural identity could have their own assembly houses and dining halls in Germisara too. A fragmentary inscription dedicated to Jupiter Dolichenus could indicate also a Dolichenian group in the settlement: ILD 317.

I.17 Nymphaeum

Location: on the hill called “Dămbul Romanilor”, in the vicinity of the Roman necropolis, 5 km North to the Roman auxiliary fort from Cigmău (coordinates: 45.935511, 23.161929; fig. 27). – Dimensions: the natural cavity and hot spring (18 m x 12 m) was surrounded by several small shrines, reservoirs and channels built in multiple phases. Description: the lake of the natural cavity was presumed to be used as healing sanctuary, later transformed with channels, which lead to several reservoirs. The lake was used as sacralised space for various religious practices and depositions. Two rectangular buildings were built in the bank of the lake. The functionality of the first one (4.5 m x 7 m) was not identified, while the second building (5.6 m x 7 m) was used as a statio or souvenir shop. A third, apsidal building was identified in the NV of the first two. The basins (reservoirs) are overlapped by later, post-Roman constructions. – Archaeological repertory: eleven golden plates, marble statue of Diana, 600 coins and several inscriptions. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 65-74; Schäfer 2009; 2011; Ardevan / Cociș 2014; Piso 2015.

Gilău (Gyalu, Julmarkt; jud. Cluj)

Roman auxiliary fort (ala and cohors) and vicus in the vicinity of the Roman city of Napoca, Dacia Porolissensis. The vicus is less researched (Isac 1997).

I.18 Aedes signorum/principia

Location: in the centre of the Roman auxiliary fort in the vicinity of the Bánffy castle. A large part of the principia was revealed (coordinates: 46.756681, 23.369919; fig. 28). – Dimensions: the principia has at least three phases. The last one measures 38.1 m x 28, 5 m while the central aedes approx. 7 m x 5 m. – Description: the fort is one of the best known in Roman Dacia. The principia was almost fully excavated, three phases (including the timber phase from the period of Trajan) was identified. Although the praetorium of the fort was modified three times, the aedes changed slightly, having an apsidal annex in the last phase. – Archaeological repertory: an inscription dated to the period of Caracalla was found here (ILD 599). – Bibliography: Gudea 1997, 100; Marcu 2009, 71-73.

Inlăceni (Énlaka; jud. Harghita)

Roman auxiliary fort and vicus, part of the Eastern Limes of Dacia. The vicus is under the contemporary village. Roman finds – especially two altars dedicated to Diana (IDR III/4, 272. 274) found 200 m South of the castrum in the early 20th century at the place called “Átal”– suggests the presence of sacralised spaces in the civilian settlement too (Gudea 1979. – See also the context of IDR III/4, 279.).

I.19 Aedes signorum/principia

Location: in the centre of the Roman auxiliary fort on the spot called Vár. The principa is one of the few excavated buildings of the fort (coordinates: 46.432615, 25.114421, fig. 29). – Dimensions: the principia measures 29 m x 16,3 m, while the aedes approx. 5 m x 5 m. – Description: the fort was known long time ago in the older literature, but systematic excavations were carried on only in 1947 and 1950. The aedes has a small dimension, surrounded by two compartments in the North and one bigger room in the south – although this one could be divided too. Recently the fort became again researched by Zs. Visy. – Archaeological repertory: no archaeological material was reported. The large number of inscriptions from the settlement attest the cult of Jupiter, Liber Pater. One of them mentions a possible experience of incubatio in the tabulatorium of the principia (IDR III/4, 284). – Bibliography: Gudea 1997, 59-60; Marcu 2009, 140-141.

Micia (Vețel, Vecel; jud. Hunedoara)

Important Roman auxiliary fort and civilian settlement identified already since the 17th century. One of the best researched military settlements of Dacia. Situated on the bank of the river Mureș, the civilian settlement played an important role in the external and internal commercial networks of the province. Beside the nine attested sacralised spaces, several others could exist, based on the large number of material of Roman religious communication. It is possible, that a sanctuary of Liber Pater existed in the conurbation, as well as an aedes signorum in the fort unexcavated yet. It seems plausible also that the finds dedicated to Jupiter Heliopolitanus, Dea Syria, Turmasgades, Dolichenus had a huge impact on the processes of space sacralisation in secondary and shared (public) spaces too. A possible shrine of Diana was also presumed in older literature, without solid arguments however (Alicu 2004).

I.20 Sanctuary of Jupiter or Jupiter Heliopolitanus

Location: 400 m SE to the auxiliary fort on the site called La Hotar (12 m South from the 68.65 km on highway), close to the templum Dii Patrii Maurorum (approx. coordinates: 45.9059, 22.8097; fig. 30). – Dimensions: uncertain. It was reported as a small sized building of 3,5m x 2 m of a single cella, although with rich building material. – Description: the sanctuary was identified on the field by O. Floca in 1947. He discovered several epigraphic and anepigraphic altars and a Jupiter statue. One of the inscriptions are dedicated to IOM Heliopolitanus, which created the confusion, that the sanctuary was dedicated to the Syrian divinity, although the cult of this divinity is attested on more than one inscription in Micia (IDR III/3, 95-97). The material shows a striking similarity of with the case study from Colonia Aurelia Apulensis or Potaissa (II.4 and II.27). – Archaeological repertory: several inscriptions were attested in the building (IDR III/3, 97-101). A statue of Jupiter was found within the cella (Isac 1974, 74, pl. III, 1). The small finds and the ceramic material of the sanctuary is partially published (Floca 1953, cat. nos 9-10). – Bibliography: Floca 1953; Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 77; Alicu 2004, 68-76; Carbó Garcia 2010, 188.

I.21 Templum Dii Patrii Maurorum

Location: 1000 m SV to the auxiliary fort on the site called Comoară (approx. coordinates: 45.9059, 22.8097; fig. 31). – Dimensions: the building has at least two phases. In the final phase, it consist of a pronaos with three naves (18m x 11, 9 m long), three cellae in the Western and a smaller annexed chamber to this in the SV. – Description: the temple was excavated in 1937, four years after the construction plaque was discovered. Although, only two inscriptions dedicated to Silvanus and the Dii Patrii of the Maurs were identified on the field, later, two other inscriptions dedicated to Liber Pater and Pluto were associated with the temple, serving as home for the triad of the Maurs (Liber Pater, Silvanus, Pluto). – Archaeological repertory: four inscriptions dedicated to Liber Pater, Silvanus, Pluto and the triad, named as Dii Patrii (IDR III/3, 47. 104. 116. 118). The small finds and the ceramic material of the sanctuary is not published. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 92-94; Alicu 2004, 63-68; Diaconescu 2011, 158-162.

Porolissum (Moigrad, Mojgrád; jud. Sălaj)

One of the best researched auxiliary forts and civilian settlements of Dacia Porolissensis (figs 3233). The vicus gained the title of municipium during the reign of Septimius Severus. The existence of several other sacralised spaces in the civilian settlement and on the so called terrace of the sanctuaries can be presumed based on the large extension of the Roman city. Based on the results of some recent excavations, archaeologists identified the possible forum of the municipium, which could indicate also the presence of further public, sacralised spaces (Gudea 1989. – Opreanu / Lăzărescu / Ștefan 2013). The building of the staff of publicum (costume building) could have also a compartment dedicated for religious activities, although the denomination of the sacralised building (templum?) is missing (Piso / Opreanu / Deac 2016).

I.22 Aedes signorum/principia

Location: in the centre of the Roman auxiliary fort. A large part of the principia was revealed and still preserved on the field (coordinates: 47.179052, 23.157203; fig. 34). – Dimensions: the Principia measures 29 m x 30 m while the central aedes approx. 5 m x 7 m. – Description: the fort is one of the best researched in Roman Dacia and the Danubian provinces. The principa had multiple phases, from timber phase till at least two phases of stone construction, the last major modifications being dated to the period of Caracalla and the Severan dynasty. The aedes is one of the sic small compartments identified in the SE part of the principia. In front of the entrance, two monumental (4, 75 m x 3, 60 m and 3, 75 m x 3 m) statue bases were found. Fragments of a monumental equestrian statue of Caracalla were also found, although it is unsure, if it was in the Principia or other parts of the fort. – Archaeological repertory: an inscription dedicated to Vulcanus was found (ILD 686). Several other inscriptions dedicated to IOM and Silvanus were also found in the central area of the fort, but their position is not established. The votive finds from C3 could belong or to the praetorium or to principia too. – Bibliography: Gudea 1997, 45; Marcu 2009, 88-91.

I.23 Dolichenum

Location: on the so called terrace of the sanctuaries, on the imperial road, next to the NV corner of the auxiliary fort (coordinates: 47.181192, 23.157344; fig. 35). – Dimensions: building (LM1, LM1-S) with multiple phases, consisted of three rooms and two additional spaces of 14.4 m x 10.4 m. – Description: the building was discovered in 1939, and later excavated partially between 1993 and 1999. Two timber phases were identified, which was later interpreted as being a taberna. The sanctuary was probably functioned after the taberna was transformed into a stone building. This one had two phases. The existence of a pronaos and a dining hall was also presumed. Several statuary monuments were found all over the building, indicating religious activity in LM1-S but also in the A-C rooms. – Archaeological repertory: a large part of the epigraphic and figurative material was published in the monograph of the sanctuary. The coin finds and a part of the small finds are also known. See also: ILD 681-682 which could belong also to the sanctuary. – Bibliography: Gudea / Tamba 2001; Ardevan / Gudea 2001; Piso 2001; Alicu 2002, 204-212.

I.24 Templum of Bel

Location: on the so called terrace of the sanctuaries, 6 m from the imperial road which connects the costum building with the auxiliary fort (cordinates: 47.181117, 23.157340; fig. 36). – Dimensions: the rectangular building had multiple phases. In the last one, it consisted of a hall measuring 27.4 m x 13.5 m. Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 75 give other dimensions: 22.6 m x 13.5 m – Description: the sanctuary was identified during several archaeological excavations from the 1930’s onwards. For a long time, it has been stated, that a Liber Pater sanctuary was transformed into a templum dedicated to Bel, which in the end of the 3rd century became a Christian basilica. None of these theories seems to be plausible. The building follows the assembly hall type of dining rooms, often used by small group religions especially in the Eastern/Hellenic provinces. It has been presumed to have at least three phases. The epigraphic material proves for sure, at least two phases, the second one being established in the age of Caracalla. – Archaeological repertory: four inscriptions dedicated to Liber Pater, Bel, Dea Syria and IOM. Several possible rubbish pits or favissae were identified, but their material was never published. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 74-77; Diaconescu 2011, 139-148; see also Alicu 2002, 234.

I.25 Nemeseion

Location: carcera in the SV part of the North-Western gate of the amphitheatre (coordinates: 47.177554, 23.153483; fig. 37). – Dimensions: approx. 5 m x 1.7 m, severely modified. – Description: the soldiers of the Numerum Palmyrenorum used one of the carcera of the amphitheatres as a sacralised space later in the end of the 2nd century A. D. The shrine was marked with the construction of an absis. Several reused building materials were also find. – Archaeological repertory: ILD 692. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 58-61; Bajusz 2011; Wittenberg 2014, 89.

Potaissa (Turda, Torda, Thorenburg; jud. Cluj)

One of the most important military centres of the province. The presence of the V. Macedonia legion is attested since 168 A. D. The canabae became a municipium during the reign of Septimius Severus (fig. 38). The archaeological heritage of the Roman conurbation from Potaissa is severely looted already from early Medieval times. A large part of the 18th/19th century collections disappeared. A rare statuary fragment of Jupiter Balmarcodes from Libanon (Bal of Deir el Qalaa) and numerous altars of Silvanus could indicate sacralised spaces dedicated to these divinities too. A head of a monumental representation of Serapis found in the baths of the fort could indicate, that a serapaeum was established there (Bărbulescu 1994, 65-70. 159-173; 2012. – Diaconescu 2014, 77-80). A sanctuary of Domnus et Domna was presumed here based only a single inscription (CIL III 7671, A. Szabó 2017, 102-103.).

I.26 Aedes signorum/principia

Location: in the centre of the Roman legionary fort. The principia is completely excavated and partially restored as part of the archaeological park (coordinates: 46.570680, 23.771800; fig. 39). – Dimensions: the principia from the legionary fort is one of the biggest in the Roman Empire, measuring 124.6 m x 72 m. The aedes in the last phase measures 11.8 m x 11.6 m. – Description: the principia had multiple phases and reconstructions. The aedes was identified in the NV part of the principia as the biggest compartment form the seven rooms attested here. At least two phases of construction were identified. The aedes ended with an apsidal shape, while the entrance probably had a porticus with tetrapylon with several steps. The excavators estimated that the facade could have had an exceptional, 6 m elevation. – Archaeological repertory: several votive inscriptions were found in the territory of the principia, where the cult of the Genii of the legion and the imperial cult was attested in various forms (bronze statue fragments, bronze statuettes, inscriptions). It is possible, that two representations of life size statues of the Genii castrorum/huiusque loci came also from the principia, where the cult of the Genius centuriae and armamentarium was attested (ILD 501, 502). See: Diaconescu 2014, 75-77. 80. – Bibliography: Bărbulescu 1997, 31-32; 2012; Marcu 2004.

I.27 Sanctuary of Jupiter/Capitolium?

Location: on the corner of Str. Cheii and N. Bălcescu (coordinates: 46.562081, 23.775837). –Dimensions: unknown. From the variety of the finds and the dimension of the column capitals, the sanctuary seems to had monumental features. – Description: in 1949 an altar dedicated to IOM was attested in this spot, well known even before as the centre of the Roman civil settlement of Potaissa in the 2nd century (ILD 469). Numerous altars were found in this area already in the 19th century (Bărbulescu 1994, 69-70). In 1985/1986 during a rescue excavation four other altars were discovered in the same place dedicated to IOM, Mercurius, Terra Mater and Hercules (ILD 464. 485. 487. 500). The large, more than 120 cm high altar dedicated to Jupiter (ILD 464) mentions, that the dedication was made for “Jupiter and all the gods living in that place” (Iovi Optimo Maximo et dis Hospitibus huiusque loci). Although the formula dis Hospitibus ca refer also to the gods of hospitality of for the accepted, accommodated foreign gods, it seems plausible, that in this case we are talking about a sanctuary, as in many cases of Dacia, where religious communication was established in a space dedicated to various divinities (in this case, with Jupiter, Mercurius, Terra Mater and Hercules). M. Bărbulescu suggested, that an inscription attesting the building of a templum came also from this area (ILD 507). – Archaeological repertory: ILD 464. 469. 485. 487. 500. Numerous fragments of terracotta, column capitals, construction material; see also: CIL III 888. 891. – Bibliography: Bărbulescu / Cătinaș 1992; Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 151.

Praetorium (Mehadia, Mehádia, Miháld; jud. Caraș-Severin)

Roman auxiliary fort and vicus. The fort was excavated in the first half of the 20th century, the vicus is less researched. An aedes signorum and other sacralised spaces can be presumed in the settlement (Benea 2008).

I.28 Dolichenum

Location: approx. 40 m from the Western wall of the auxiliary fort, near the Roman road. – (coordinates: 44.917722, 22.354086; fig. 40). – Dimensions: building with multiple phases. In the latest period, it measured approx. 30 m x 10 m. – Description: the sanctuary had at least three phases. In the first phase a timber structure was identified. Later, the stone building was built in the middle of the 2nd century A. D., extended in the end of the 2nd century and continued to exist till Gordian III. The excavators presumed, that the sanctuary first was dedicated to Apollo and later transformed into a dolichenum. The author of these lines proved with I. Boda, that the sanctuary could function as a dolichenum from the very beginning of its existence. – Archaeological repertory: numerous inscriptions (AE 2011, 1094-1096), militaria small finds, lamps, construction material, coins, statuary fragments of Jupiter, Apollo, eagle, relief of Jupiter Dolichenus and Juno Dolichena. A part of the material was published in the monograph of the sanctuary. – Bibliography: Alicu 2002, 202; Benea 2008; Boda / Szabó 2011.

Racovița (Copăceni, Praetorium[?]; jud. Vâlcea)

Roman auxiliary fort and vicus from Dacia Inferior (Malvensis). The vicus was not excavated (Tudor 1978, 274-76).

I.29 Aedes signorum/principia

Location: in the centre of the Roman auxiliary fort. The principia is largely excavated. Today the building is in severe danger and ruined (coordinates: 45.400954, 24.310298; fig. 41). – Dimensions: the principia measured 21 m x 28 m, while the aedes 6.35 m x 5.85 m. – Description: the principia was partially excavated in the 1980’s. The aedes, considered as relatively big for the small size of the fort is in the centre of the Western part of the principia as one of the three compartments identified. – Archaeological repertory: not published. – Bibliography: Gudea 1997, 93; Marcu 2009, 213-214.

Răcari (Răcari de Jos; jud. Dolj)

Roman auxiliary fort and vicus in Dacia Inferior (Malvensis). Although the fort is well excavated, the vicus was not yet researched (Marcu 2009, 213-216).

I.30 Aedes signorum/principia

Location: in the centre of the Roman auxiliary fort, SE to the modern settlement of Răcari de Jos. The principia is largely excavated and preserved (coordinates: 44.514074, 23.571606; fig. 42). – Dimensions: the principia measured 37 m x 34 m, while the aedes has a radius of 5.90 m. – Description: the principia is relatively large for the auxiliary fort. The aedes was identified as one of the seven rooms in the Western part of the headquarter. Similarly to the Slăveni fort and several others in Dacia, it was rebuilt in the second phase as an apsidal building. – Archaeological repertory: not published. – Bibliography: Gudea 1997, 96-97; Marcu 2009, 217-218.

Resculum (Bologa, Sebesvár; jud. Cluj)

Roman auxiliary fort and vicus in the NW limes of Dacia Porolissensis. The vicus is less researched.

I.31 Aedes signorum/principia

Location: in the centre of the Roman auxiliary fort, on the spot called Cetate or Grădiște (coordinates: 46.890533, 22.872855; fig. 43). – Dimensions: the principa is just partially revealed. It measures approx. 29 m x 32.5 m. The aedes measures around 2.5 m x 6 m. – Description: the aedes signorum was identified in the Southern part of the principa. It is surrounded by four other compartments, although the phases and the exact structure of this area need a much more detailed analysis. New excavations identified three phases within the fort. – Archaeological repertory: no archaeological material was published from the aedes. – Bibliography: Gudea 1997, 39-42; Marcu 2009, 28-30.

Samum (Ad Samum, Cășeiu, Alsókosály; jud. Cluj)

Roman auxiliary fort and vicus. Based on the large number of epigraphic material, there number of sacralised spaces was probably much higher (Isac 2003).

I.32 Aedes signorum/principia

Location: in the centre of the Roman auxiliary fort. Although, the building of the principia was fully excavated, today is barely visible on the surface (coordinates: 47.186084, 23.837362; fig. 44). – Dimensions: the principia measures 30 m x 25.5 m, while the aedes 7 m x 5.2 m. – Description: the aedes is part of the SV part of the principia, where five compartments were attested. The middle one – which is the largest – was identified as the aedes, although the area was severely looted already in the 1930’s when the building was excavated. – Archaeological repertory: more than 50 inscriptions known from Samum, but few of them have a well know topography. Although a sacralised space dedicated to Jupiter Dolichenus and Nemesis seems plausible, it is not sure, which of the votive inscriptions came from the aedes or the principia. A statue of a Genius was also found in the fort. See also: Diaconescu 2014, 98; ILD 763-794. – Bibliography: Gudea 1997, 52-53; Isac 2003; Marcu 2009, 54-56.

Sarmizegetusa (Colonia Sarmizegetusa, Várhely; jud. Hunedoara)

Capital of the Trajanic province, seat of the financial procurator of Tres Daciae, founded as colonia deducta in 106 A. D. (fig. 45). Some of the buildings attested during the extensive excavations since the 1930’s were interpreted as sanctuaries (buildings EM 19, 29, 004), although the archaeological material can’t prove this hypothesis. Their functionality was presumed based exclusively on their position and vicinity of the NE area sacra of the city. Several temples dedicated to the Palmyrene gods (Bel Hamon, Malagbel I-III) were reported from the extensive excavations of the Hunyad Vármegyei Régészeti és Történelmi Társulat (Archaeological and Historical Association of Hunyad County), but it is possible, that the finds from the four reported sanctuaries came from the two archaeologically attested sanctuaries of the Palmyrene gods (see also: Boda 2014). The assembly hall of the augustales is attested archaeologically and also epigraphically, although it is not sure, if religious activities were practiced within this building. A sanctuary of Sucellus and Nantosuelta/Aeracura was also presumed, based on four reliefs found in the city (Nemeti 1998). The provenience of the finds are uncertain, which makes this hypothesis unsecure (Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 109-114. 119-122. 161-162; Alicu 2002, 201-202; Nemeti 2005, 148-149; Boda 2014; 2015a, 2015b). Several collegia were attested in the city, which could have religious activities in their assembly houses too. The presence of the Dii Magni (probably the great gods of Samothrake) can indicate a sanctuary of the divinity too (Nemeti 2016, 84-85).

I.33. Sacralised spaces in the Forum Vetus

Location: centre of Colonia Sarmizegetusa (coordinates: 45.513181, 22.787807; fig. 46). – Dimensions: the basilica (62, 7 m x 17, 35 m) and the aedes fabrum with three phases. – Description: the major religious activities in the shared and secondary spaces of the Forum Vetus were concentrated in two buildings: the basilica and the aedes fabrum. While the first building represented the space of religious communication of the provincial/senatorial elite, the aedes fabrum was a place for a more closer, communal activities, forming a dining hall, monumentalised in the last phase with an absidal room. – Archaeological repertory: numerous statue fragments of emperors and altars dedicated to Minerva Augusta (IDR III/2, 271), Genius ordinis decurionis (CIL III 1425=IDR III/2, 219), Fortuna (IDR III/2, 210) and Concordia (IDR III/2, 195). – Bibliography: Étienne/Diaconescu/Piso 2006, 143-152 and cat. nos 18-23. Boda 2015a, 289-290; Boda 2015b.

I.34 Area sacra in domus procuratoris

Location: NE part of Colonia Sarmizegetusa (coordinates: 45.515014, 22.787697; fig. 47). – Dimensions: several compartments identified in a well limited area of the domus, where cultic activity can be presumed. Most notably, a small rectangular building (10 m x 5 m) in the SV part of the domus procuratoris, identified as a possible serapeum, while another one (known as building 004) with three small chambers (nrs.1-3) as shrines dedicated to the imperial cult. – Description: in the monumental building complex, which had at least five phases, several artefacts were found, attesting religious practices. The sacralised space, where these finds were concentrated is well limited between the storage houses and the baths, in a narrow section of 10 m x 65 m, with several, small rectangular buildings from the 2nd and 3rd phases. Similarly to the praetorium consularis in Apulum, cultic activities in such palaces could be concentrated on small rooms of specific groups (possible Serapis worshippers) or shared spaces, where the worship of the divine emperors or the Genius Imperatoris happened. The material came from this limited area of few compartments shows a striking and various religious communication. Among the finds, there are several inscriptions mentioning Italic divinities, such as Vulcanus Mitis, Germanic gods, such as Mars Camulus, Rosmerta and most curiously, Mithras, or Syrian divinities, as Caelestis. The cult of Salus and Apollo Grannus was also attested in this area, probably related to the health issues of the emperor Caracalla. While some of the dedications shows a religious communication related to the obligations of the high political elite of the province, others, such as the rare combination of Mars Camulus-Mithras, the dedication for 12 divinities by Publius Aelius Hammonius (IDR III/2, 246) or the cult of Vulcanus Mitis seems to be a rare attestation of religious individuation in Sarmizegetusa. – Archaeological repertory: more than 50 inscriptions, statues and statue bases were found in this area. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 90-91. 112-114; Schäfer 2007, 245-272. 398-399 Kat. H XII; Boda 2015a, 291; 2015b, 189-196.

I.35 Asklepieion

Location: Extra muros, east to the amphitheatre of the Roman city (coordinates: 45.517506, 22.788252; fig. 48). – Dimensions: the building complex is formed by four edifices, surrounded by a 57 m x 41 m x 61.5 m x 70 m trapezoidal wall. The area was delimited by a 229 m long wall, with a possible gate. The four buildings had multiple phases, in the recently known phase they have the following dimensions: I: 10.25 m x 10 m, II: 9.5 m x 6.5 m, III: 12.8 m x 8.1 m, IV: 5 m x 5.9 m. – Description: the healing complex had at least three phases. The first phase, dated on the end of the 2nd century A. D. shows an irregular structure with multiple compartments. It is very possible, that in this phase the structures had another functionality and do not served as a sanctuary. In the second phase the wall of the sacred precinct is already attested. Four buildings (I-IV) and a circular fountain are attested. In the I. building, an altar base was found in the interior of the cella, while in the building II the altar was in front of the entrance. Building III in the second phase was identified as a tetrasyle temple. West to the building I a fountain was attested. The area was recently reconstructed as a garden or a grove, although archaeobotanical analysis was never made in this area. In the end of the second phase a large fire occurred, often related to the Sarmatic/Marcommanic Wars. In the last phase, all the edifices are extended and heavily modified. Building II was changed from three into a double-roomed edifice, while buildings I and III preserved their inner structure, but were extended. South to building III a new sanctuary was attested (building IV). In some reconstructions, a fifth edifice is also represented. – Archaeological repertory: at least 18 statues, inscriptions and bronze small finds were attested in the building complex. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 32-42; Schäfer 2007, 64-69. 145-158. 374-376; Boda 2015a, 288 no. 18; 2015b, 154-164.

I.36 Capitolium

Location: Intra-muros, in the Western part of the Forum Novus (coordinates: 45.512474, 22.787321; fig. 49). – Dimensions: the foundation of the building is 27.6 m x 18.7 m. – Description: identified long time ago, the territory was known also before 2004, when the systematic excavations begun. The hypothesis was raised in 1990. The field research was carried on with short breaks till 2011, although the building and its surrounding is still not totally revealed. The sanctuary was identified as a Roman templum of hexastylos, peripteros sine postico type, although the ideal reconstruction is very hypothetical. The identification of the building with the Capitolium of the city is based on the topography of the building, the existence of the epulum Iovis in Sarmizegetusa and on the monumental size and exquisite building material of the area. The presence of the cultores Iovis was also recently attested (ILD 249). – Archaeological repertory: inscriptions mentioning the epulum Iovis (IDR III/2, 242), a fragment of Jupiter’s finger and parts of the eagle. See also: Lupa 15140, 15223, 17596, 19191. – Bibliography: Schäfer 2007, 47-50; Piso 2010; Piso / Țentea / Marcu 2012; Boda 2015a, 288, fig. 7, 4.

I.37 Sanctuary of Domnus et Domna

Location: Extra muros, in the NE precinct of the area sacra, West to the EM 24, in the very vicinity of the Liber Pater sanctuary (coordinates: 45.517925, 22.787610; fig. 50). – Dimensions: the small sanctuary had multiple phases. In the first phase it measured 4.1 m x 3.8 m. – Description: the area with two other buildings were identified between 2004 and 2007 as part of an international collaboration. After the geophysical measurements, the sanctuary was excavated. It is one of the best documented sacralised spaces of the province. Not only the timber phase was identified, but several votive deposits and non-repetitive rituals were identified. The first phase ended probably around 170 A. D. as many of the sanctuaries in the area sacra were presumably destroyed by the Sarmatic attacks. The second phase ends up after the abandonment of Aurelian around 271 A. D. The sanctuary is also important, because it is the first one attesting a sacralised space for Domnus et Domna. Their cult was recently associated by I. Tóth and Á. Szabó with the well known cult of the Danubian Riders, as a specificity of the Danubian provinces (A. Szabó 2017. Other authors did not accept this theory: Boda 2015b). – Archaeological repertory: the construction inscription was found in the sanctuary (AE 2010, 1383). Several votive deposits with a large amount of ceramic material (kantharos, lamps, vessels) and bones were found in the two phases. 100 m from the sanctuary a lead tablet was discovered, probably used in magical practices as defixio. – Bibliography: Fiedler/Höpken 2010; Boda 2015a, 288, fig. 7, 13; Németh 2015, 396-397; Szabó 2017b, 102-103.

I.38 Sanctuary EM 16

Location: Extra muros, in the NE precinct of the area sacra, East to the EM 24 (coordinates: 45.518092, 22.788840; fig. 51). – Dimensions: it had a rectangular form of 13.5 m x 6.5 m. – Description: the sanctuary was discovered in 1979. It was identified as sanctuary, because of the close vicinity to the sanctuaries in the area sacra and the Asklepieion. The archaeological material was extremely poor, which doesn’t support this theory. – Archaeological repertory: there were no inscriptions or figurative monuments (reliefs, statues) found. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 109; Schäfer 2007, 243-244; Boda 2015a, 288, fig. 7, 16.

I.39 Sanctuary EM 17

Location: Extra muros, in the NE precinct of the area sacra, East to the EM 24 (coordinates: 45.518092, 22.788840; fig. 52). – Dimensions: it had a rectangular form of small dimensions (approx. 5 m x 6 m). – Description: the sanctuary was discovered in 1979. It was identified as sanctuary, because of the close vicinity to the sanctuaries in the area sacra and the Asklepeion. The archaeological material was extremely poor, consisted mostly of ceramic finds. A bronze statue fragment could indicate the sacralised nature of this place. The building later was destroyed by the new construction of a motel. – Archaeological repertory: there were no inscriptions found. Mostly ceramic material (unpublished) and a very small, bronze statue fragment. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 109; Schäfer 2007, 244, Boda 2015a, 288, fig. 7, 17.

I.40 Sanctuary EM 18 or the “Great Temple”

Location: Extra muros, in the Southern part of the area sacra, between the Northern city wall and the Asklepieion (coordinates: 45.516280, 22.788324; fig. 53). – Dimensions: the territory of the sanctuary is the largest ever attested in Dacia, measuring 43.6 m x 34 m. The entrance with a vestibulum is 5 m x 3.5 m, while the interior courtyard measures 21.3 m x 31.2 m. The cella itself is 10 m x 5.6 m. – Description: the sanctuary was discovered between 1976-1978. It was probably built after 170 A.D, although there are few chronologically attestable material. The functionality of the building and the divinities worshiped within provoked numerous discussions. It is accepted, that numerous divinities, among them Iuno, Diana Augusta, Liber Pater and Hercules Augustus were also worshiped. This combination – often cited by Romanian literature as the tutelary divinities of the province – seems to be more a personal choice of the economic elite of the province. This complex in strict relation with the – Archaeological repertory: the archaeological material consists of several statue fragments representing Diana, Hercules and Liber Pater. Numerous lamps were attested in the interior too. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 114-119; Schäfer 2007,156-159; Diaconescu 2014, 1-4; Boda 2015a, 288, fig. 7, 20.

I.41 Sanctuary EM 24

Location: Extra muros, in the NE precinct of the area sacra, next to the Liber Pater sanctuary (coordinates: 45.517966, 22.788387; fig. 54). – Dimensions: the building has multiple phases and compartments. In the first phase, it had a rectangular form of 15.9 m x 15.3 m. – Description: the building was excavated between 1983 and 1985. Several phases of the construction were identified, which revealed, that in the end of the 2nd century A. D. the building was heavily modified. An apsis was added in the north part of it and a tripartite cellae system was established in the south. The building was hypothetically reconstructed with a possible tower. It was unanimously accepted, that the building functioned as a sanctuary because its topography within the area sacra, although the archaeological material doesn’t prove this. – Archaeological repertory: there were no inscriptions or figurative monuments (reliefs, statues) found. The excavators mentioned several iron objects (arrowheads, fibulae). – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 104-109; Boda 2015a, 288, fig. 7, 15.

I.42 Liber Pater and Silvanus sanctuary

Location: Extra muros, 300 m NE to amphitheatre of the Roman city (coordinates: 45.517803, 22.787392; fig. 55). – Dimensions: the building has a rectangular shape of 25.5 m x 20.4 m. – Description: the sanctuary had at least two phases. In the first phase, the three cellae was accessed by a vestibulum with two columns, later extended with a larger, four column entrance from the south. Similarly, the three cubicula from the north were modified, new entrances being installed. In the center of the inner courtyard an altar was standing. In the NW cubiculum of the building several monuments dedicated to Silvanus were found, which could indicate, that this shrine was dedicated to him. The cult of Diana was also present in this complex. – Archaeological repertory: 22 inscriptions, statues and reliefs were found in the building complex. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 52-58; Schäfer 2007, 175-190; 384-385; Boda 2015a, 288 no. 12.

I.43 Mithraeum

Location: uncertain. Extra muros, SV to the city wall, close to the bank of the so called Apa Mică brook (approx. coordinates: 45.5080, 22.7855; fig. 56). – Dimensions: uncertain. The excavators revealed only the naos and a small part of the central nave of the building (3.8 m x 4,20 m). Based on the extreme amount of finds, the sanctuary was interpreted as one of the biggest mithraeum of the Roman Empire. – Description: the sanctuary was discovered in 1882 and 1883 in two short systematic excavations by Pál Király and his team. Only a small part of the building (a part of the naos) was identified, although the largest part of the finds came from a single deposit in front of this. Although it was interpreted as one of the largest sanctuaries of its kind, it is very possible, that it was a middle sized building. The provenience and function of the large amount of finds are still not solved. Recently it was suggested, that the large amount of finds could prove the presence of a workshop, specialising on Mithraic reliefs or a late Roman statuary deposit. – Archaeological repertory: more than 184 relief fragments, statues, statuettes, altars and a significant amount of small finds were reported, which makes the largest Mithraic deposit ever found in the Roman Empire. – Bibliography: Király 1886; Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 81-84; Schäfer 2007, 190-236; Szabó 2014c; Sicoe 2014, 174-230, cat. nos 72-194; Boda 2015a, 287, fig. 7, 23; Höpken/Fiedler 2015, 201.

I.44 Nemeseion

Location: Extra muros, SE to the main entrance of the amphitheatre (coordinates: 45.516588, 22.786654; fig. 57). – Dimensions: 15 m x 18.5 m (approx. 52 m2) with multiple phases of reconstruction. – Description: the building had multiple phases. The first one was identified as being contemporary with the timber-phase of the amphitheatre. Later, the Nemeseion was enlarged. The cella (4.5 m x 3,55 m) and the pronaos (4,2 m x 1.8 m) changed only slightly in the two later phases. The cubicula were probably installed in the northern part of the sanctuary. The exact functionality of these are not identified, but the inscriptions attesting the incubatio suggest a strict contact with the Asklepeion in the nearby. – Archaeological repertory: 17 inscriptions, statues and bronze object fragments. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 61-65; Schäfer 2007, 163-173. 381-382; Boda 2015a, 288, fig. 7, 8.

I.45 Nymphaea

Location: in the vicinity of the Eastern part of the entrance to the Forum Vetus (coordinates: 45.513602, 22.787703; fig. 58). – Dimensions: the foundation of the first nymphaeum was 6.2 m x 5.6 m and a height of more than 4 m. – Description: the two fountains and the rich archaeological material was discovered in 1993-1994. The two propylonic nymphaea were standing in the monumental entrance of the Forum Vetus. Their iconographic program of the buildings was following the main tendencies of the Trajanic city planning. The archaeological material found in these two buildings and its surroundings doesn’t attest religious activity, although the publicity and functionality of public statues representing divinities can had similar connotations. – Archaeological repertory: two honorary inscriptions, several fragmentary statues representing Poseidon/Neptun of the Laterane type, the nymphs, Apollo and the muses. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 74; Diaconescu / Bota 2004; Băeștean 2007; Boda 2015a, 287.

I.46 Palmyrene sanctuary

Location: Intra-muros, in the Western part of the Forum Vetus (coordinates: 45.513093, 22.787067; fig. 59). – Dimensions: the foundation of the central cella is 8.75 m x 8.75 m. – Description: the area was well known after 1988, when the area of the Forum Vetus and later, the Forum Novum was systematically excavated. The sanctuary was researched in 2010-2011, although based on the epigraphic material the hypothesis was raised already in 2003. The building had multiple phases, and it was predated by a domus of a wealthy magistrate. It is not sure, if the owner of the house was related to the Palmyrene group, who will dedicate this temple to Yarhibol and Malagbel in the age of late Caracalla or Severus Alexander. New fragments of inscriptions identified also a new religious collegium of the city and a unique, list of cultores. The sacerdotal system of the Palmyrene group and the cultores suggest a well established Syrian community in the city. Some authors don’t accept the possibility of a Syrian sanctuary in the very heart of the Roman city. – Archaeological repertory: several fragments of inscriptions were recently found, which complete the older epigraphic material from this area: IDR III/2, 65, AE 2004, 1216, Piso/Țentea 2011, 117-118 nos 2-3; painted walls and frescos were identified too. The small finds and the material is not published yet. – Bibliography: Piso / Țentea 2011; Boda 2015a, 288 fig. 7, 5.

I .47 Templum of the Paternal Gods of the Palmyrian tribe of Bene Agrud

Location: extra muros, West to the Forum Vetus on the Delineștilor Hill (coordinates: 45.511429, 22.774917; fig. 60). – Dimensions: uncertain. Recently reconstructed as a building with a plan measuring 18.7 m x 7.5-8.5 m. – Description: Followed by several lootings from the 1870’s, the site was excavated in 1881 by G. Téglás and P. Király. For long, it was known as the Malagbel I. temple, presuming the existence of at least two other sanctuaries dedicated to the Syrian divinities. The sanctuary was just partially revealed, but an approximate plan was made by the excavators. Recently, a hypothetical reconstruction interpreted as a Syrian assembly hall type building, with banqueting places and a kitchen (culina) attached to the sacralised place. – Archaeological repertory: two inscriptions and construction plaques, building materials (IDR III/2, 18, 262). – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 77. 84-90; Schäfer 2007, 85-93. 242-243; Carbó Garcia 2010, 921; Diaconescu 2011, 148-158, Boda 2015a, 297.

I.48 Sanctuary of Silvanus

Location: Extra muros, in the Southern part of the area sacra, between the Northern city wall and the Asklepeion, next to the Great Temple (coordinates: 45.516175, 22.788016). – Dimensions: the building has multiple phases. The last one is a rectangular building with several small compartments, measuring 28 m x 12.8 m. The building has also another one annexed to it, with an unknown functionality. – Description: the sanctuary was discovered and excavated in 1976. It was probably built after 170 A.D and had at least three phases. An older building which predated the sanctuary was also identified. The functionality of the building and the divinities worshiped within provoked numerous discussions. It was presumed, that could be a Syrian temple of Malagbel too. More recently, based on a single relief representing Silvanus with his female companions, accepted as being a sanctuary dedicated to the god of forests. – Archaeological repertory: relief representing Silvanus with his female companions (Lupa 15150). – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 119-122; Boda 2015a, 288 fig. 7, 21.

Slăveni (jud. Dolj)

Roman auxiliary fort and military vicus. Although archaeological investigations since the 19th century revealed a large part of the fort and the baths, the excavations in the vicus were not yet published (Tudor 1978, 306-311).

I.49 Aedes signorum/principia

Location: in the centre of the Roman auxiliary fort, SE to the modern settlement of Răcari de Jos. The principia is largely excavated and preserved (coordinates: 44.081887, 24.529161; fig. 61). – Dimensions: the principia measured 43.2 m x 37.4 m, while the aedes has an exceptional, 10 m x 10 m with a 5.6 m radius of the apsis. – Description: the aedes was identified in the SV of the principia, surrounded by five other rooms. It has an apsidal shape and a relatively large size for an auxiliary fort. – Archaeological repertory: not published. – Bibliography: Gudea 1997, 83-84; Marcu 2009, 229-230.

I.50 Mithraeum

Location: uncertain. It was reported, that the sanctuary was close to the river Olt. – Dimensions: uncertain. Based on the position of the sanctuary in rural context, it had probably a modest size for a small group. – Description: the sanctuary was discovered in 1837 by M. Ghica and later published shortly by Vladimir de Blaremberg. His report mentions, that the reliefs and altars were in a long building, installed in a subterranean slope, while the brick walls were painted in different colours. – Archaeological repertory: eight altars and reliefs found in the mithraeum. There are few lines about small finds too, but they were not preserved. – Bibliography: Petolescu 1976; Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 81; Sicoe 2014, 251-255 cat. nos 240-247.

Tibiscum (Jupa, Zsuppa/Iaz-Obreja, Obrézsa; jud. Caraș-Severin)

Important Roman auxiliary fort and military vicus in the SW edge of the Hadrianic Limes. The Roman fort and the extensive vicus of Tibiscum was well known since the 16th century. Most part of the large amount of epigraphic and statuary material has an undocumented findspot, which makes it hard to establish the number of sacralised spaces (fig. 62). Although, the presence of early Christian communities and even, their assembly houses were suggested in several articles, the archaeological material does not prove these theories (Benea / Bona 1994; Ardeț / Ardeț 2004; Boda / Timoc 2016.).

I.51 Aedes signorum/principia

Location: in the centre of the Roman auxiliary fort, NE to the modern settlement of Jupa. The principia is largely excavated and preserved (coordinates: 45.465756, 22.189699; fig. 63). – Dimensions: the Principia measured 31.5 m x 36 m, while the aedes has an exceptional, 14 m x 6.6 m. – Description: the fort of Tibiscum was modified numerous times, at least three large phases are known. The recently known principia served for the last, enlarged castra. The aedes was identified in the SV of the Principia, surrounded by four other rooms. The size of this compartment is very large in comparison with the rest of the annexed rooms and the principia, which indicated that probably was also divided. Although, some authors contest the presence of sacralisation in this space, the position of the room indicates that it functioned as an aedes signorum. Another possibility could be, that only the smaller chamber (J) behind the room G served as the aedes. – Archaeological repertory: large amounts of bones and a possible ritual deposit. It is possible, that an inscription mentioning a silver statue and the building of a temple (templum) could refer to the aedes signorum (Alicu 2002, 235). Timoc in his article on the sanctuary of the Palmyrene presents also a statuette of an aquila on a globus, which could belong to the aedes (Timoc 2005, 122 fig. 5). – Bibliography: Benea / Bona 1994, 48-49; Gudea 1997, 32-33; Marcu 2009, 162-165.

I.52 Schola or dining hall/Palmyrene sanctuary

Location: in the NE of the Roman auxiliary fort, NE to the modern settlement of Jupa (coordinates: 45.467550, 22.190486; fig. 64). – Dimensions: the building complex measured 28.8 m x 6.8 m. – Description: the functionality of the building provoked a large debate in the scholarly publications. The excavator, M. Moga never published his archaeological journals and a detailed report. Based on his notes, I. Piso and D. Benea identified the building as a horreum transformed into a schola. Recently it was presumed, that the building was serving as a podium-salee, a dining room following the structure and functionality of Hellenic assembly houses of small group religions. The position of the building within the fort makes problematic to establish it’s functionality, although the presence of sacralised spaces within forts are well documented. The attestation of several votive dedications (inscriptions, votive plaques, plumb objects) suggest a shared, but not public religious experience of a small, possibly Palmyrene group. Their habit to establish a sacralised space in an unusual or “non-canonical” space (as it happened in Sarmizegetusa, near the Forum Novus) could indicate, that this building served indeed, as a dining hall of a religious group of Palmyrene. Several other inscriptions mentioning the presence of the Palmyrene in Tibiscum (Kaizer 2004), some of them (IDR III/1, 134) were found in the south of the fort. The presence of a sanctuary dedicated to their Dii Patrii is almost certain, the location of this however, not. – Archaeological repertory: several inscriptions dedicated to the Genius of the horreum, Malagbel and Liber Pater. Votive plaques and relief fragments are still unpublished. See also: IDR III/1, 134. 136. 142. 149; ILD 202. – Bibliography: Alicu 2002, 212-218; Timoc 2005; Marcu 2004, 91-96; 2009, 168-170; Diaconescu 2011; Boda / Timoc 2016.

I.53 Fanum of Apollo

Location: 1,5 km West to the auxiliary fort, in the periphery of the Roman civilian settlement, on the spot called “Sat Bătrân”, close to the Tibiscum-Sarmizegetusa road (Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 42). Today, the exact location of the sanctuary is unknown (approx. coordinates: 45.462, 22.224; fig. 65). – Dimensions: the building complex had multiple compartments. The inner courtyard measures 17 m x 10.6 m, delimited by two smaller rooms (10.6 m x 5.1 m and 6.1 m x 6.9 m) and circular shaped compartments in the east. – Description: the building complex was never published by the excavators. It was presumed, that the fanum had multiple phases, suggested also by the inscription mentioning the rebuilding of the sanctuary. The reconstruction was associated with the cohors I Vindelicorum (Haynes 2013, 379), who replaced the cohors I Sagittariorum in Tibiscum. – Archaeological repertory: inscription mentioning the reconstruction of the building: ILD 199, while another was placed in the sanctuary after the miraculous healing of the emperor Caracalla (ILD 200). – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 42-49; Ardeț / Ardeț 2004, 66; Boda / Timoc 2016.

Vărădia (Arcidava?; jud. Caraș Severin)

Roman auxiliary fort and military vicus in Dacia Superior. After some opinions, it was part of the province only in the Trajanic period (Nemeth / Matei / Fodorean / Blaga 2011, 41-45. – See also Höpken et al. 2016).

I.54 Aedes signorum/principia

Location: in the centre of the Roman auxiliary fort, northeast to the modern settlement of Vărădia, on the bank of the river Karas. The fort today is barely visible (coordinates: 45.087723, 21.552518; fig. 66). – Dimensions: the Principia measured 37.5 m x 32.5 m, while the aedes around 5 m x 5 m. – Description: the fort was excavated in 1932 and later, in 2000. Five small compartments were attested in the Southern part of the Principia by the first excavator, but the exact functionality of the building was presumed only from its canonic position and not from the archaeological material. No further excavations were carried in this area since then. – Archaeological repertory: unpublished. – Bibliography: Gudea 1997, 26; Marcu 2009, 172-173.

II. Epigraphically attested sanctuaries of Roman Dacia

Ampelum (Zlatna, Zalatna; jud. Alba)

Roman civilian settlement in the Apuseni Mountains, centre of the Auraria Dacicae, the golden district of Dacia. The large number of inscriptions dedicated to Silvanus, an inscription mentioning the cult of Isis, Terra Mater, two inscriptions dedicated to Liber Pater (one of them possibly mentioning a Bacchic group (IDR III/3, 37) indicates the presence of other sacralised spaces in the Roman town and its vicinity. A possible sanctuary of Domnus et Domna was also presumed here based on a single inscription (CIL III 1289 – A. Szabó 2017, 102-103.). A pottery workshop producing religious artifacts existed here (Moga 1996, fig. 67).

II.1 Templum Aesculapi (Asklepieion)

Location: between the modern settlements of Zlatna and Pătrânjeni, on the spot called Chilia Grui, under the mountain of Jidovu (approx. coordinates: 46.09195, 23.25950. – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: around 1930 a fragmentarily preserved plaque was found together with building material and the foundations of a building. Although, the area was rarely habited even in the 1960’, today it is already heavily modified. – Archaeological repertory: IDR III/3, 280, 280a. Several other inscriptions (IDR III/3, 286, 287) are attesting the cult of the healing divinities. – Bibliography: Russu 1984, 283-284; Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 123.

Apulum (Alba Iulia, Gyulafehérvár, Karlsburg)

II.2 Asklepieion

Location: approx. 200 m from the Northern wall of the Colonia Aurelia Apulensis, near the Tăușor lake (coordinates: 46.052080, 23.568733; fig. 68). – Dimensions: there are no archaeological evidences of the exact dimension of the building (or buildings), however the epigraphic material suggest a porticus modified at least three times. The latest attests a 11,84 m long entrance, which suggest a monumental building. The analogy of colonia Sarmizegetusa indicates a healing complex with multiple buildings, separated from the city by walls or natural, geographic elements, such as the river and the lake. The geophysical survey of the Apulum Project indicates also a multicomparted, large building in this area. – Description: The healing complex consisted of multiple buildings: a fountain (IDR III/5, 31), a bridge and a rectangular building with three cellae were attested epigraphically and on the terrain in the 1970’s. If we presume, that the detailed description of György Aranka from 1796 refers to the same place, than the Asklepieion consisted of the following buildings dedicated to various divinities: the temple of the healing divinities, rebuilt at least three times with monumental porticus, a bridge which connected the sacred area with the imperial road (via Traiana), a fountain with a shrine dedicated to Diana, a temple for Apollo Salutaris and probably a shrine for Liber and Libera with a crypta and a porticus. Altars dedicated to Venus, Nemesis, Silvanus, Jupiter Conservator and Dolichenus were also discovered in this area. There were no systematic excavations in the area. The region was looted already in the Medieval ages and severely damaged in the 20th century canalization, when most of the remains of the complex were discovered. Aerial photos and the first geophysical survey proved the existence of monumental buildings in the area, outside of the North part of the Colonia, which can be identified with the largest healing centre of Dacia. – Archaeological repertory: the majority of the epigraphic material dedicated to Aesculapius and Hygeia has no exact context, however we can presume that all of them came from the healing complex. The material consist of: IDR III/5, 1-21. 30-36. 47. 199. 220. 223. 247. 297. 356. 363 and probably IDR III/5 26. 241-242. 323. 326. 330. 343. 349. The statuary representations of Apollo and Asclepius could be also from here (Lupa 12367, 19306, 19346, 19362). – Bibliography: Crișan 1971, 341-346; 1976, 35-46; Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 123-126; Szabó 2004, 91-114; 2015b; BRRD 64-65.

 II.3 Aedes of Fortuna

Location: Colonia Aurelia Apulensis (Partoș, Marospartos). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the existence of the sanctuary (aedes) is presumed only based on a fragmentary inscription first attested in 1836. It is not sure if the building mentioned in the text was dedicated only for Fortuna Supera or the altar stood in another sacralised space. The large number of the inscriptions dedicated to Fortuna in the conurbation (IDR III/5, 72-78) and her association with personifications (Genius canabenisum), special epithets (domesticus) or dedicators (legatus Augusti legionis XIII Geminae) suggest, that the divinity was worshiped in multiple places, not only in one. – Archaeological repertory: one, fragmentary inscription (IDR III/5, 78). – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 127.

II.4 Capitolium or Jupiter temple of the Colonia Aurelia Apulensis

Location: uncertain. Recently the Forum of the civil settlement was identified (between B-dul Reg. V. Vânători / Str. Gemenilor nr. 13 (coordinates: 46.0455, 23.5662). It is possible, that a representative area of the city had one or more sanctuaries dedicated to the capitoline divinities and the dii consentes. – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: there are numerous inscriptions dedicated to the supreme god, however their topography is impossible to establish. Due to the syncretistic nature of the divinity and it’s unprecedented popularity in the conurbation, we can presume that it was worshiped in numerous places. A spectacular find was attested in the end of August, 1867 and described in details by K. Gooss. During the building of the railway in the territory of the Colonia Aurelia Apulensis, a monumental temple ruin was attested, with a standing column, numerous column bases, a monumental statue of Jupiter (Lupa 17354) and three altars (IDR III/5, 123, 167, 168). The temple described by Gooss is the only Jupiter temple attested in the province and one of the most spectacular finds of Apulum (fig. 69).

One votive column (IDR III/5, 191) dedicated to Jupiter and Iuno by an Augustalis coloniarum mention the rebuilding of a temple (templum). The exact findspot of the monument is impossible to establish. Eight representations of Jupiter were found in this area of the Municipium Aurelium Apulense/Colonia Aurelia Apulensis (Daicoviciu 1941, 307 fig. 6, 7. – Băluță 1980, 101-102. – Ota 2013, 63 fig. no. 46, 47), one of them together with altars and a marble plaque dedicated to Diana in the garden of Gligor Sas (str. Gemenilor nr. 13, IDR III/5, 52). This part of the city – close to the recently identified Forum – could have one or more sanctuaries dedicated to the supreme Roman god. Another inscription is known from the Colonia Aurelia Apulensis which mentions the existence of sanctuaries of Jupiter (IDR III/5, 153). It was discovered in 1904 in the Marospartos, however without an exact context. The palaeography of the text suggest a similarity with the plaque dedicated to Diana, discovered later (IDR III/5, 52). Numerous votive and honorific altars and statue bases (IDR III/5, 432) were found in this area, which also suggest the identification of the area as the Forum of the city. A representation of Hercules was also found in this area (Ciută 2014, 458-470.). The context of the find is poorly documented, but it could stood also in a public bath in the vicinity of the Forum. Without archaeological excavations, the existence of the temple and its topography is hypothetical. – Archaeological repertory: unknown. IDR III/5, 123, 167, 168 and the exceptional statue of Jupiter Capitolinus (Lupa 17354). The Jupiter statues, the marble plaque dedicated to Diana (IDR III/5, 52) and the altars of Sol (IDR III/5, 351) could belong to the temple(s). See also: IDR III/5, 432, 446. – Bibliography: Daicoviciu 1941, 305-306; Băluță 1980, 101 -102; Pescaru / Alicu 127-129; Szabó 2015b.

II.5 Jupiter temple of the Municipium Septimium Apulense

Location: unknown. Based on some particular finds, a possible site of a sanctuary was identified during the construction of the modern Palace of Culture (Casa de Cultură). The territory is part of an extra muros area, where a possible “road of sanctuaries” was identified (approx. coordinates: 46.064, 23.568). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the existence of a Jupiter temple on the territory of the Municipium Septimium Apulense can be argued with the numerous finds related to the worship of the god. Five statues of Jupiter were found and an inscription (IDR III/5, 193) mentioning the rebuilding of a templum with a horologarium by a miles legionis. One of the statues are the biggest ever found in Dacia, decorated once with metal applications and carefully elaborated details, however it seems to be found in a secondary position (Lupa 19222). Although, the building complex, where the statue was found was a monumental one, it was totally destroyed during the construction of the Palace of Culture. – Archaeological repertory: IDR III/5, 193, Lupa 19222. – Bibliography: Băluță 1978, 169; Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 129-130; Ota 2012, 95-96; Szabó 2015b; see also: Diaconescu 2014, 58, cat. no. 31a.

II.6 Temple(s) of Nemesis

Location: uncertain. Multiple places of provenience. – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the existence of one or more places where Nemesis was worshiped is sustained by the numerous finds related to her cult, an inscription mentioning the rebuilding of a temple (IDR III/5, 295) and the logical possibility of the existence of an amphitheatre in the conurbation. Temples of Nemesis were identified by the historiography in the praetorium consularis, in the healing complex of the Asklepieion or most recently inside the castra legionis XIII Geminae although none of the cases have a documented archaeological context. As D. Alicu underlined already, the great variety of the finds and the analogies from the entire Roman Empire suggest that a Nemesis sanctuary should exist in the vicinity of the amphitheatre, possibly identified by B. Cserni and later by V. Moga. – Archaeological repertory: Alexandrescu 2013, 234 cat. no. 70; AE 2012, 1239. 1241; IDR III/5, 293-297; Nemeti 2005, 339 no. 96; Lupa 19325. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 130; Ciobanu / Bounegru 2012, 41-50; Szabó 2014d, 533-544; 2015b.

II.7 Dolichenum

Location: uncertain, probably the extra muros area of the Municipium Septimium Apulense on the modern street of B-dul 1 Decembrie 1918 or in the North part of the Colonia Aurelia Apulensis. – Dimension: unknown. – Description: there are no sanctuaries dedicated to Dolichenus attested archaeologically in Apulum. A beautifully elaborated marble plaque mentioning the reconstruction of a temple by a sacerdos of a Dolichenian community, probably formed mostly from militaries was found in a secondary position in the end of the 19th century (IDR III/5, 217). Numerous analogies from the Danubian provinces show, that the sanctuaries of Dolichenus were positioned closely to a commercial area of the city or near the forts, in the vicinity of other assembly buildings, like the mithraea. In 1963 a Dolichenus altar was found in the B-dul 1 Decembrie 1918 (IDR III/5, 221). In this area, where two possible mithraea were identified could place also a dolichenum, but the divinity could be worshiped in multiple places as well, like in the area of workshops in the Colonia Aurelia Apulensis. – Archaeological repertory: unknown. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 135-136; Ota 2012, 116; Szabó 2015b.

II.8 Aedes of Sol Invictus

Location: uncertain. One of the few buildings which stood also in the 18th century and was described by Ariosti near the fort. It is possible that it was also part of the extra muros area of the Municipium Septimium Apulense. – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: an inscription dedicated by C. Caerellius Sabinus, legatus Augusti legionis XIII Geminae (IDR III/5, 354) mentioning the reconstruction of an aedes of Sol Invictus was discovered by G. Ariosti. The Italian architect, who supervised the building of the Vauban fort in the area of the canabae/municipium mentions also as a comment, that the find came from the ruins of a temple, still visible between 1715-1722. The inscription was interpreted till the mid-20th century as a Mithraic one (CIMRM 1968), however later was excluded from the Mithraic finds of Apulum. It is possible, that an aedes of Sol Invictus stood in the vicinity of the fort, the same area (B-dul 1 Decembrie 1918) where other sacralized spaces were found. The existence of the building and the importance of it in the religious life of the soldiers could be argued also by the dedication of three senatorial persons (legatus legionis), a rare case attested in Dacia. It is also possible, that these dedications were part of the principia. – Archaeological repertory: IDR III/5, 354; see also: IDR III/5, 350. 353. – Bibliography: CIMRM 1968; Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 139; Szabó 2015b.

II.9 Fanum Dominae

Location: unknown, probably in the extra muros area of the Municipium Septimium Apulense (B-dul 1 Decembrie 1918). Dimensions: unknown. The term of fanum could suggest a modest dimension with a possible garden or transformed natural environment, similar to the small compartment of the Domnus et Domna sanctuary in Colonia Sarmizegetusa. – Description: the inscription dedicated by a pictor, was one of the earliest mentioned by antiquaries in the 16th century. Its exact position is unknown. The fanum was dedicated to collective Celtic divinities, probably related to the cult of the matronae, attested in numerous military settlements in the Empire (Woolf 2003, 131-138). – Archaeological repertory: IDR III/5, 66; numerous monuments dedicated to Celtic female divinities were attested in Apulum (Suleviae, Nantosuelta, Badones Reginae). They could be worshiped also in a similar fanum. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 141; Ota 2012, 95; Szabó 2015b.

II.10 Exedra of IOM Bussumarius

Location: uncertain. Probably in the Northwest part of the Colonia Aurelia Apulensis. – Dimensions: unknown. The construction plaque mention the rebuilding of an exedra (9 m by 7.5 m) with an arch. – Description: The cult of Bussumarius is known from three inscriptions found in the conurbation. One of them (IDR III/5, 206) was discovered on a field of Marospartos (Colonia Aurelia Apulensis) in unknown context. The text mentions, that an augustalis of the Colonia commemorates with a marble plaque the building of an exedra with an arch. The notion exedra cum arcu suggests a small architectural instalment, and not a proper building, which means, that it could stood also in a house or assembly halls. Various communities from Asia Minor and their divinities were attested in Apulum, which could suggest the presence of these kind of assembly halls, dining rooms of religious associations. A votive column dedicated to the divinity (IDR III/5, 39) was described first time in 1874, however it was surely discovered earlier. However it’s seems logic, that if the reused stone stood in the territory of the canabae, it’s original place could be also there, but some examples show that stones could wonder within the city itself and even outside of it. The presence of a column suggest a monumental architecture. The worship of Bussumarius could be present also in the extra muros territory of the Municipium Septimium. Another votive column dedicated to the divinity was found in 1857 walled in the Catholic Cathedral (IDR III/5, 113). – Archaeological repertory: uncertain. A head of a divinity, which was reported together with the construction plaque: Cserni 1901, 315; Diaconescu 2014, 61 cat. no. 33. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 142; Ota 2012, 94; Szabó 2015b.

Drobeta (Drobeta Turnu-Severin; Szörénytornya, Szörényvár; jud. Caraș-Severin)

II.11 Sanctuary of Cybele-Magna Mater

Location: unknown. – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the inscription was attested in the 16th century by Megyericsei (Mezersius) in the wall of the Roman fort, today is disappeared. It mentions the dedication of Iulia Maximilla to the Great Mother of Cybele, who rebuilt the porticus of a building. Although the nature of the building is not revealed, the inscription and the divinity indicate a sanctuary. – Archaeological repertory: uncertain; see: IDR II, 26-27. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 135; Ota / Szabó 2015.

Micia (Vețel, Vecel; jud. Hunedoara)

II.12 Mithraeum

Location: unknown. – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the inscription (IDR III/3, 49) was found reused in the modern church of Solymos (Șoimuș). The text mentions, that Publius Aelius Euphorus, one of the key members of the Publicum Portorium Illyrici and an actor of Publius Aelius Marus, built a temple for Deus Invictus. The text was associated with Mithras for a long time, recently it was contested its Mithraic nature. The large number of Mithraic finds from Micia indicates for sure, the existence of a mithraeum in the settlement. The great impact of Publius Aelius Marus, as one of the charismatic persons attested in the Mithraic groups from Apulum, supports this hypothesis too (see also IDR III/4, 248). – Archaeological repertory: Sicoe 2014, 230-234, cat. nos 195-202. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 139; Alicu 2004, 112-114.

II.13 Templum of Isis (Iseum)

Location: unknown. – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the inscription (IDR III/3, 48) was found in secondary position and for a long time was kept in the garden of the Jósika family from Branyicska. The inscription is missing, but it was reconstructed based on drawings from the 19th century. The text mentions, that Domitia, probably the wife of Varenius Pudens built a temple of Isis. – Archaeological repertory: IDR III/3, 48 = SIRIS 686; see also: IDR III/3, 75. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 140

Potaissa (Turda, Torda, Thorenburg; jud. Cluj)

II.14 Templum of Bonus Puer (Azisos)

Location: unknown. The inscription was found in the spot called “in vii”, impossible to locate today.  For a possible location see: 46.569076, 23.764604. – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the inscription was found in 1774 in a private garden of grapes (CIL III 875). Donatus, the praefectus of the V Macedonica legion reconstructed the building in the period of Valerianus and Gallienus. It is very possible, that the inscription dedicated to Apollo Phoebus (ILD 482) found 600 m Southwest from the fort came from the same sanctuary. – Archaeological repertory: CIL III 875; see also ILD 482. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 134-135.

Samum (Ad Samum, Cășeiu, Alsókosály; jud. Cluj)

II.15 Sacrarium of Nemesis

Location: unknown. – Dimensions: unknown. The term sacrarium could suggest a modest dimension. – Description: the inscription was dedicated by Cassius Erotianus, a beneficiarius, who rebuilt the sacralised place in the mid-3rd century A. D. Although some of the Nemesis dedications were found in a secondary position in the fort, reused already in Roman times (probably after the rebuilding of the sacrarium by Erotianus), the sacralised space could belong to an amphitheatre. – Archaeological repertory: ILD 773-776. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 130-131.

Sarmizegetusa (Colonia Sarmizegetusa, Várhely; jud. Hunedoara)

II.16 Templum of Isis (Iseum)

Location: unknown. Dimensions: unknown. Description: the existence of an Iseum in Colonia Sarmizegetusa is based on the large number of Isiac material found in the city. The dedicatory plaque of the sanctuary (IDR III/2, 227) unfortunately has an unknown provenience. The cult of Isis was attested in two more inscriptions (IDR III/2, 228-229) and several statuary representations too. It is very possible, that her cult was related to the so called Serapeum attested in the area sacra of the Domus Procuratoris. – Archaeological repertory: IDR III/2, 227-229. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 140; Deac 2015 [non vidi].

II.17 Templum of Caelestis

Location: extra muros, somewhere in the Northwest part of the Roman city, probably in the garden of Litschek (approx. coordinates: 45.516881, 22.778010). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: The existence of the temple is based on the construction plaque of Nemesianus, libraries, who built the sanctuary on his own costs (IDR III/2, 17). Although, the exact position of this construction plaque was not mentioned, later C. Daicoviciu discovered an altar dedicated to Caelestis in the garden of Litschek, which can indicate in that spot a sanctuary too. No further research was carried in this area. – Archaeological repertory: IDR III/2 17, 192. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 140-141.

Sucidava (Celei; jud. Olt)

Important military fort and vicus in Dacia Inferior (later Malvensis). There are inscriptions and figurative monuments attesting the cult of Isis, Fortuna, IOM, Apollo/Hercules/Diana triad too. Unfortunately, the provenience of these finds are unknown (Tudor 1978, 11-25. 198-207). A possible workshop of producing religious artifacts existed here (Tudor 1978, 197-208; Gudea 2009, 257). Based on some votive plaques and an inscription a sanctuary of Domnus et Domna could exist here too (A. Szabó 2017, 102-103).

II.18 Templum of Nemesis

Location: unknown. In the area of the Roman civilian settlement (approx. coordinates: 43.764637, 24.459581). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the fragmentarily inscription mentioning the rebuilding of a templum was found in 1973, reused in the wall of the Roman fort (IDR II, 197). It was probably previous to another one, discovered in the 19th century (IDR II, 190) which mentions the curiales of the territorium Sucidavensis. Due to the position of the dedicants, the inscription was dated to the end of the 3rd century, which indicates at least two phases of such a sanctuary. It also remarks the increasing cult of Nemesis in Dacia in the second half of the 3rd century, which seems to be present also in Apulum and other cities. – Archaeological repertory: ILD 773-776. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 131.

Tibiscum (Jupa, Zsuppa/Iaz-Obreja, Obrézsa; jud. Hunedoara)

II.19 Templum of Liber Pater

Location: uncertain. A part of the construction plaque was discovered in the Eastern part of the fort, near the Roman road (approx. coordinates: 45.468047, 22.188881). – Dimensions: unknown. The construction plaque could measure 1,4 m in length, which suggest a monumental portico. – Description: the fragment of the inscription was discovered in the Eastern part of the fort, while the provenience of the rest of the construction plaque is unsecure. The text mentions, that a vexillation of the Palmyrene troup built a templum for Liber Pater. The reading of the text is very problematic. – Archaeological repertory: ILD 202, 203. – Bibliography: Alicu 2002, 220.

III. Presumed sanctuaries of Roman Dacia

Ad Mediam (Herculane, Herkulesfürdő; jud. Hunedoara)

Roman settlement formed around the natural sources of hot springs and cavities. Based on the map of Griselini from 1774, D. Benea claimed, that a round building in sector I of the ancient ruins of the city was an Asklepieion. Later, D. Alicu didn’t accept this theory, arguing correctly with the monumental size of the structure (46 m in diameter). The two inscriptions mentioning the cult of Asclepius and Hygeia (IDR III/1, 54-55) indicates that they were placed right in the bank of the river and the thermal baths and mineral springs and not necessary in a building (Alicu 2002, 222-223).

III.1 Sanctuary of Hercules

Location: Uncertain. In the so called sector III. on the map of Griselini (approx. coordinates: 44.874072, 22.411479; fig. 70). – Dimensions: unknown. The building associated with the cult of Hercules had multiple compartments. – Description: based on the map of Griselini from 1774 and the descriptions of the first reports of the Roman site, D. Benea and I. Lalescu identified in the so called sector no. III.a building with multiple compartments, where the Hercules statues and numerous inscriptions dedicated to the protector god of healing springs were found. Although, the description of Caryophilus confirms the identical find spot of numerous artefacts, they cannot be identified anymore on the field. – Archaeological repertory: IDR III/1, 55-56. – Bibliography: Alicu 2002, 223-229.

Almașu Mare (Nagyalmás; jud. Hunedoara)

Roman stone quarry and mining centre attested in the 19th century. No systematic excavations were made.

III.2 Sanctuary

Location: Uncertain. On the spot called Dosu Nyegri (Dosul Negru) in the vicinity of the Roman mines (approx. coordinates: 46.104584, 23.117350). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the existence of a sanctuary in the area of Almasu Mare is based on a middle sized (65 cm x 45 cm) statue of Jupiter and Iuno discovered on the site in the end of the 19th century. It could belong however also to a workshop or lapidaria. – Archaeological repertory: rudimentary statue representing Jupiter with a severely damaged female figure on his right. – Bibliography: Téglás 1890.

Ampelum (Zlatna, Zalatna; jud. Alba)

III.3 Sanctuary of “Fortuna”

Location: Uncertain. In the vicinity of the smeltery, today under the territory of the abandoned factory (approx. coordinates: 46.106065, 23.233818). – Dimensions: unknown. The first report mentions a ruin with 1 m standing walls and excavation layers of 2 m. – Description: in 1900 during the extension of the smelter, mining engineers discovered two altars and five bronze vessels. Based on the short description of Zs. Kurovszky and later, G. Balla, it seems plausible, that in this spot, near the Roman cemetery on the road which was leading to Apulum, stood a small, sacralised space dedicated to Fortuna. The cult of Fortuna is attested on several altars in Ampelum (IDR III/3, 301-304; ILD 347; see also IDR III/3, 311), however their context is unsecure. Important to notice, that an altar of Fortuna Redux and the Genius of the numerus Maurorum was found together with a Dolichenian inscription, which indicates the vicinity of the two sanctuaries. Recently, a new reinterpretation of the material and archaeological context suggested, that the vessels are not from the same context with the altars and could belong to an assembly house of a collegium or a domestic context (Paper held by Silvia Mustață at the Conference Archaeologica Transylvanica, Targu Mureș, 2016 December. Verbal confirmation of the author). – Archaeological repertory: IDR III/3, 303. 315 and five bronze vessels. The provenience of ILD 347 could be the same place. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 146.

III.4 Dolichenum

Location: Uncertain. Close to the spot called Luncă or în Luncă, near to the modern bus station (approx. coordinates: 46.108633, 23.231323). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the presence of a sanctuary is based on the large amount of inscriptions (6) and a sacerdotal colleague in Ampelum. In 1966, three votive inscriptions dedicated to Silvanus, Dolichenus and Fortuna Redux were discovered in the Luncă spot, close to the place where in 1900 the Fortuna sanctuary was attested too. In 1979 a votive column dedicated to Dolichenus was found in the same place, which confirmed the existence of a sanctuary here, mentioning possibly in the text a sacerdos templum. The presence of Dolichenian groups was proved also by a funerary monument (ILD 338). The votive columns have the same dimension, which indicates also their identical provenience. – Archaeological repertory: IDR III/3, 218. 291. 295. 297-298; see also: IDR III/3, 333. 336. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 154.

III.5 Sanctuary of Jupiter/Capitolium

Location: Uncertain. A head of a monumental Jupiter statue was found at the T. Vladimirescu street no. 22 (approx. coordinates: 46.109876, 23.227174). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the existence of a sanctuary dedicated to the supreme god is based on three statuary representations of Jupiter found in Ampelum. One of them (Diaconescu 2014, 63 cat. no. 34) was a 2.5 m high monumental statue, one of the finest of the province. Two other statues are smaller and less elaborately made (see Ota 2013, 69. 75 figs 56-57; Lupa 19244). Numerous inscriptions attesting the cult of Jupiter, one of them is dedicated to the Capitoline triad (IDR III/3, 318). The presence of the cultores Iovis mentioned on column indicates also a sacralised space dedicated to the supreme god. Large sized statue bases and honorific monuments indicates also the existence of a Forum in this area of the city. – Archaeological repertory: IDR III/3, 280. 292-293. 318. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 149-150.

Apulum (Alba Iulia, Gyulafehérvár, Karlsburg; jud. Alba)

III.6 Deus Aeternus sanctuary

Location: Uncertain. In the extra muros area of the Colonia Aurelia Apulensis, field of Ioan Popa at the “Lăbuț” (approx. coordinates: 46.045407, 23.571380). – Dimensions: unknown. The size of the columns suggest a building with great dimensions. – Description: there are at least eight inscriptions found in the conurbation dedicated for Deus Aeternus, however the divinity appears sometimes also in syncretism with the supreme god (Nemeti 2005, 373-375). See also IDR III/3, 216: C(aius) Iul(ius) Tato d(eo) / (a)et(e)rno v(otum) p(osuit). The finds – mostly votive columns – were attested in numerous places of the conurbation (castra legionis, canabae, praetorium consularis, Colonia), which suggest that it was worshipped in multiple places. A possible sanctuary was discovered on 26th February 1936 in an extra muros area, East to the Colonia Aurelia Apulensis on the area called “Lăbuț”, where two large sized votive columns and more than 200 oil lamps were found (IDR III/5, 25. 29). – Archaeological repertory: IDR III/5, 25. 29; the rich lamp deposit doesn’t exist anymore; see also: IDR III/5, 22-29. 65. 203. 205. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 132-134; Ota 2012, 112; Szabó 2015b.

III.7 Sabasius sanctuary

Location: uncertain. Probably in the extra muros area of the Municipium, along the B-dul 1 Decembrie 1918 and its surroundings (“Majorszőllőtelep”). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the existence of a possible building or shrine dedicated to Sabasius is based on a plaque discovered in 1912 in the territory of “Crișan” at Majorszőllőtelep. Although the text doesn’t mention the building or restoration of a place, the word “fecit” on a plaque dedicated by an aedilis of the Colonia suggest this. – Archaeological repertory: unknown; see: IDR III/5, 225. – Bibliography: Macrea 1961, 64-67; Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 138; Ota 2012, 111; Szabó 2015b.

III.8 Sanctuary of IOM Cimistenus

Location: uncertain. Probably in the extra muros area of the Municipium, along the B-dul 1 Decembrie 1918 and its surroundings. – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: in 1961 on the “Dealul Furcilor” was discovered two altars dedicated to IOM Cimistenus together with some parts of stone blocks, bricks and mortar fragments. Although the first publishers doesn’t mention the exact location of the find and there were no systematic excavation after the discovery, they noticed that this place is located in the very vicinity of the “mithreaum of Oancea” discovered 30 years earlier. – Archaeological repertory: uncertain; see also: IDR III/5, 208-209. – Bibliography: Berciu / Popa 1963; Ota 2012, 93; Szabó 2015b.

III.9 Sanctuary of Yarhibol

Location: uncertain. Probably in the extra muros area of the Municipium in the vicinity of the B-dul Ferdinand, near the Franciscan Church (approx. coordinates: 46.0640, 23.5793). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the possible existence of a Syrian sanctuary is based on the presence of numerous Syrians in the conurbation and the discovery of an altar dedicated for Yarhibol by a sacerdos of the divinity. The altar was found in 1971 or 1972 in the vicinity of the Praetorium Consularis, at the B-dul Ferdinand I. in front of the Franciscan Church (see also IDR III/5, 102). Another altar dedicated also by a sacerdos of the divinity was described already in the 16th century. It is possible, that the sanctuary stood in the very periphery of the extra muros area of the canabae/Municipium, on the very end of the “road of sanctuaries”. – Archaeological repertory: unknown; see also: IDR III/5, 102-103. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 153; Szabó 2007, 51; 2015b.

III.10 Iseum

Location: uncertain. Probably in the southern part of the Colonia Aurelia Apulensis, near the bank of the river (approx. coordinates: 46.042591, 23.560883). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: in 1958 an altar dedicated to Isis Myrionima was found in the garden of Ion Drăghici in the Partoș, Southern part of the Colonia Aurelia Apulensis. The first publisher mentions the presence of a Roman building structure, bricks, pottery, mortar and two coins from Hadrianic period (Popa 1962, 147). No further excavations were carried on the location. I. Piso identify the garden of Drăghici in the south part of the Colonia, however it was not yet confirmed by further examination. The cult of Isis is well attested in the Colonia and also in the Praetorium Consularis. – Archaeological repertory: IDR III/5, 104 (two coins from Hadrianic times); see also: Neigebaur 1851, 209-211, cat. nos 81. 136; Lupa 21973. – Bibliography: Popa 1962, 147-150; Deac / Varga 2014,14; Szabó 2015b.

III.11 Magna Mater sanctuary

Location: unknown. Possibly in the extra muros area of the canabae/Municipium or in the Northern part of the Colonia Aurelia Apulensis. – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the existence of a sanctuary of Magna Mater is based on a votive plaque, probably of large dimensions found in 1831 (IDR III/5, 253). The place and condition of the discovery is unknown. The other sources of the cult of Magna Mater from Apulum has also an uncertain provenience. Two of them (IDR III/5, 255-256) were found in the territory of the Colonia Aurelia Apulensis. – Archaeological repertory: unknown; see also: CCCA VI, 485-488; IDR III/5, 253-256. – Bibliography: Carbó Garcia 2010, 301-303; Ota / Szabó 2015; Szabó 2015b.

III.12 Quadriviae sanctuary

Location: uncertain; probably on the territory of the Colonia Aurelia Apulensis. – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the existence of a possible place of worship for the Quadriviae is based on the fact, that three of the altars dedicated to the divinities were found in the territory of the Colonia Aurelia Apulensis. One of them (IDR III/5, 310) in 1846 in the garden of Johannes Pauer with a large number of other votive monuments (Szabó 2014a, 60) and the other one (IDR III/5, 309) in the garden of Vasile Pleșa in 1927. The exact location of these gardens are not yet clarified. The third altar came from a secondary position, probably used in the reconstruction of the city wall (IDR III/5, 311). – Archaeological repertory: unknown; see also: IDR III/5, 309-311. – Bibliography: Szabó 2015b.

III.13 “Mithraeum of Oancea”

Location: Extra muros area of the canabae/Municipium. Found on the property, garden or field (“Grundstück”,“jardin”) of Ioan (or Ștefan) Oancea (Christescu 1933, 624 – Daicoviciu 1941, 308) on the plateau of the Vauban fortress on the B-dul Încoronârii (today 1 Decembrie 1918). Later, C. Băluță mentioned, that a sarcophagus and a Mithraic relief was discovered on the Dealul Furcilor, in the garden of Tăutu Constantin at B-dul 6 Martie, no. 3 in the vicinity of this possible mithraeum (approx. coordinates: 46.0648, 23.5651); the place is not yet located on terrain (fig. 71). – Dimensions: unknown. The number of the monuments (ten to eleven) suggest a large or at least, middle sized sanctuary. – Description: in 1930 Virgil Cucuiu attested a Roman building with numerous Mithraic monuments discovered probably by the owner of the garden or field. The context and the exact location of the discovery was never published properly. The finds and the discovery entered in the literature as a sanctuary (mithraeum) already from the first publication and cited numerous times later. Only once was questioned the very nature of the discovery and raised a possibility of a Late Antique spolia based on a IOM altar found also in the sanctuary (IDR III/5, 141 – Gordon 2009, 413, footnote 170). Without a systematic excavation and topographic identification of the site, the existence of the sanctuary is hypothetical. – Archaeological repertory: CIMRM 1953-1967; IDR III/5, 141. 270-271. 279. 282. 288-290; see also Băluță 1974, 130-132; IDR III/5, 279; IDR III/5, 289; CIMRM 1957; Sicoe 2014, 153, cat. no. 31; Szabó 2015c, 240 fig. 3. – Bibliography: Christescu 1933, 620-625; Daicoviciu 1941, 299-336; Carbó Garcia 2010, 131; Ota 2012, 106; Sicoe 2014, 21; Szabó 2015b.

III.14 “Mithraeum of Károly Pap”

Location: uncertain. On the territory of the Colonia Aurelia Apulensis. – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: In 1852 Károly Pap, shipmaster (“hajómester”) discovered in his garden ruins of a Roman building and three Mithraic monuments, two altars (IDR III/5, 272273) and a fragmentary relief which is considered disappeared today (Torma 1861-63, 134). The exact place of his garden is not located yet, but the first publisher mentioned the “Marospartos” which is the south part of the Colonia Aurelia Apulensis. The function of the discoverer and the dolphin representation on the altar of Dioscorus could suggest the vicinity of the river. Recently, a votive column was found on the black market, which could belong to the same context (Szabó / Boda / Timoc 2016). – Archaeological repertory: IDR III/5, 272-273 and a relief attested only in the 19th century. – Bibliography: Torma 1861-63, 134; Szabó 2015b; Szabó / Boda / Timoc 2016.

III.15 Mithraeum of “Franciscus Kastal”

Location: unknown; on the territory of the Colonia Aurelia Apulensis. – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: around 1785 Franciscus Kaftal “ponderum magistri” found in the territory of the Marospartos (south part of the Colonia Aurelia Apulensis) a spectacular group of monuments dedicated to Mithras, the finest pieces of this kind from the province. The nature of the finds (free standing Mithras Tauroctonos, complex relief) suggest a presence of a mithraeum. It is possible, that further, unepigraphic finds came from the same spot. The exact place of the discovery is impossible to establish. – Archaeological repertory: IDR III/5, 280-281. 284; see also: CIMRM 1985. 1991. 2186. 2188. – Bibliography: Szabó 2013a, 45-64; 2015b.

The exact number of the Mithras sanctuaries from the conurbation of Apulum is impossible to establish. The large number of the monuments and the presence of six, large sized cult reliefs suggest at least five to six buildings dedicated to the worship of this divinity. This number wouldn’t be surprising, similar density of sanctuaries were attested in Poetovio, Aquincum, Ostia or Rome.

III.16 Sanctuary of Silvanus

Location: uncertain. In an extra muros area of the Colonia Aurelia Apulensis, near a Roman road, on the territory of the current “Apulum” Porcelain factory (approx. coordinates: 46.052, 23.562). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: on 12th June, 1847 three monuments dedicated to Silvanus were found in the same place, in the vicinity of the old brick-factory, which later was replaced in the 1970’s by the “Apulum” Porcelain Factory. The exact context of the finds are unknown, were shortly mentioned by Thalson in the 19th century. The area was heavily dense with forest even in the 18th-19th century. An inscription preserved in a manuscript of Szamosközy (Zamosius) could indicate also the reconstruction of a templum. – Archaeological repertory: IDR III/5, 323. 330. 343. – Bibliography: Bărbulescu 1993, 182; Szabó 2015b.

III.17 Sanctuary of Bonus Puer (Azisos)

Location: unknown. Important to mention, that numerous inscriptions were reused in the Saint Michael Cathedral, which suggest, that the sanctuary should be in the vicinity of the Roman fort. – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the possible existence of a sanctuary dedicated to Bonus Puer/Azisos is based on the large number (nine) of inscriptions dedicated to the divinity. Similarly to the case of Potaissa, another legionary fort, the cult of this divinity seems to be very popular, attracting a very heterogeneous group of worshipers (women magistrates, soldiers, officers, liberti). Almost all the inscriptions mentioning the divinity are disappeared, being among the first artefacts reused in Medieval times, which could indicate also, that the sanctuary was among the most visible landmarks of the ruins of Apulum (the other one was the Asklepieion). – Archaeological repertory: IDR III/5, 2. 300-307. – Bibliography: Nemeti 2005, 179-185. 346-347; Carbó Garcia 2010, 192. 806-812.

Cioroiu Nou (Malva?; Aquae? Cioroiași; jud. Dolj)

Roman auxiliary fort and important settlement. The ancient toponym of the settlement is unsecure. It was associated with Malva and Aquae, although without solid arguments. Recent studies emphasizing that the settlement could be identical with the long disputed Malva: IDR II, 142: M(arcus) Opellius Maximus / [dec(urio) Mo]ntanensium Herculi / [pro sal(ute) Aqu?]uensium ex voto posuit. The presence of numerous votive offerings and representations of divinities (Hekate, Magna Mater, Bacchus, Apollo, Jupiter – Tudor 1978, 379-380 fig. 108.) indicates the presence of multiple sacralised spaces in the civilian settlement or even in the fort (Diaconescu 2014, 83-84). A possible workshop of producing religious artifacts existed here (Tudor 1978, 208-214; Gudea 2009, 257.).

III.18 Sanctuary

Location: in the Northeast part of the Roman fortification, 60 m from the highway (approx. coordinates: 44.057724, 23.437196; fig. 72). – Dimensions: the rectangular building has 17, 8 m x 6.6 m and three compartments. – Description: the building was discovered in 1960-61. It was identified as section no. VIII during the excavations, in the vicinity of the fort, on the bank of the modern brook of Cioroiu. The excavators claimed, that the building was built in the 2nd century A. D. and abandoned in the period of Gordian III. It is possible, that it was a domestic place, later transformed into sanctuary. The identification of the building as sanctuary, was based on the tripartite structure of the complex, similar to what we find also in the case of the dolichenum from Porolissum, for example. The finds from the vicinity of the fort (especially from the Northeast and Southwest corner of it) suggest indeed, a similar situation as we find in Porolissum, on the terrace of the sanctuaries. The archaeological material however doesn’t serve with strong arguments. New excavations in this settlement from 2004 onwards can offer perhaps a reconsideration of the research from 1960-61. – Archaeological repertory: the excavators claimed that a large relief fragment representing Hercules with the lion of Nemeia was discovered in 1938 in the area of this building, although the vicinity of the baths could serve a much appropriate place for Hercules representations. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 100-101.

III.19 Mithraeum

Location: in the Southeast part of the Roman fortification (approx. coordinates: 44.056236, 23.434364). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: in 1936 in this area was found two marble statues later disappeared on the black market. The statues described by Tudor based on the report of “some local people” represented a figure surrounded by a snake and another holding a shield and a sword (probably two statues of Mithras Petrogenitus – Tudor et al. 1967, 595 note no. 6.). Later, a Mithraic inscription was found in this area too (IDR II, 145). The excavation from 1960-61 revealed in this area (section nos IV-VI) several statue fragments representing Bacchus, Jupiter and Apollo too. Interestingly, they found also a small fragment of a bull and a mould for terracotta bulls. – Archaeological repertory: IDR II, 145; two missing statues of Mithras Petrogenitus. – Bibliography: Tudor et al. 1962; Sicoe 2014, cat. no. 230.

Arcobadara (Arcobara?; Ilișua; Alsókosály; jud. Bistrița-Năsăud)

III.20 Sanctuary (schola?)

Location: uncertain. In the vicinity (or part) of the baths of Arcobadara (approx. coordinates: 47.211386, 24.100533). – Dimensions: 29 m x 14.68 m. – Description: the structure of the building excavated in 1875 an described by K. Torma in 1880 seems to be a rectangular one, consisted of two compartments: a long pronaos (18,3 m x 13,45 m) and a smaller naos ended in an apsidal structure. He associated this building with the inscription discovered in 1776 by Makrai Elek (CIL III 7626), based on the correspondence of J. Kemény. Although, the inscription indeed, mention a templum and a schola of the decuriones of the ala I Tungrorum Frontoniana, the provenience of the inscription and the nature of the building is unsecure. – Archaeological repertory: Torma mentioned, that in this building he found a golden fibula, gold rings, bronze bracelets and fragments of terra sigillata. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 147-148; see also: Nemeti 2010.

Caranșebeș (Karánsebes, Karansebesch; jud. Caraș-Severin)

Roman settlement (probably a pagus or vicus) in the southern part of Dacia Superior. A villa was also found on the territory of the modern city.

III.21 Sanctuary/capitolium?

Location: in the vicinity of the modern settlement, east to the 68 national highway on the spot known as Câmpul lui Corneanu on the first terrace of the Timiș river (approx. coordinates: 45.4303, 22.2308; fig. 73). – Dimensions: the partially revealed building was found in a courtyard measuring an impressive 50 m x 60 m. The building complex measures 19.95 m x 14.75 m. – Description: the building complex was discovered and partially revealed in 1975. A monumental, walled courtyard was identified. On the Eastern wall of the courtyard a building was attested, with several compartments and based on the plan of the excavators, at least three phases. The building has three cellae in the centre, surrounded from the East with a large pronaos and from the West with a smaller compartment. The excavators suggested, that the building complex was a mansio, taking in consideration, that on the territory of the modern settlement a villa rustica was already identified. I. Piso suggested, that an inscription interpreted by him as one dedicated to the Capitoline triad could belong to this building, identifying the tripartite structured complex with a “rural Capitoline temple”. C.C.Petolescu doesn’t accept this theory and claims, that the inscription “certainly comes from Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa” (ILD 195: [I(ovi)] O(ptimo) [M(aximo)] / [Iun]oni M[iner(vae)] / [– Eu]ryma[—] / [—] col(oniae) pro [salute] / [sua]m(!) et su[orum] / [v(otum)] l(ibens) [solvit]). From the original report of the excavators, the attested archaeological material doesn’t indicate, that this building could be a sanctuary. Till a more accurate study on the site, the only argument for such an interpretation is the architectural structure of the complex, similar to the sanctuaries attested in Colonia Sarmizegetusa and Micia. – Archaeological repertory: unknown; see also: Piso 1995b, fig. 1. – Bibliography: Piso 1995b; Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 98-100.

Cincșor (Kissink, Kleinschink; jud. Brașov)

Roman auxiliary fort and military vicus at the Southeast Limes of Dacia Superior.

III.22 Mithraeum

Location: uncertain; probably on the spot called Schlekenried (approx. coordinates: 45.837648, 24.835793). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the existence of a mithraeum is based on the 12 relief fragments found in 1906 on the field of Michael Ludwig. The location of the place was not yet confirmed on the field, it could be part of the vicus militaris formed in the Western part of the auxiliary fort of the cohors II Bessorum. – Archaeological repertory: Sicoe 2014, 172-174 cat. nos 67-71. – Bibliography: Sicoe 2014, 172-174.

Dierna (Orsova, Orșova; jud. Mehedinți)

Important auxiliary fort and civilian settlement in the Southwest edge of Dacia Superior on the bank of the river Danube. The settlement was developed from the vicus formed around the fort of the cohors I Brittonum and auxiliaries of the V Macedonica legion and in the time of Septimius Severus became a municipium. In the end of the 1960’s large part of the Roman necropolis and the settlement was revealed, although no sacralised spaces were attested (Gudea 1997, 31).

III.23 Mithraeum

Location: uncertain. Probably in the vicinity of the fort (approx. coordinates: 44.712650, 22.393414). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the existence of a mithraeum is based on two relief fragments. Although, there were excavations in the civilian settlement in the end of the 1960’s, the traces of the mithraeum were not identified. – Archaeological repertory: Sicoe 2014, 240-241 cat. nos 217-218. – Bibliography: Sicoe 2014, 240-241.

Drobeta (Drobeta Turnu-Severin; Szörénytornya, Szörényvár; jud. Mehedinți)

III.24 Sanctuary of Jupiter Zbelsurdos-Sabasios

Location: uncertain; on the place called Ogasul Tabacarilor, approx. 100 m West from the fort. – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the existence of a Jupiter Zbelsurdos sanctuary was presumed by D. Tudor, based on the large, almost 80 cm long marble plaque with relief, dedicated to Zbelsurdos and Sabasios, interpreted by him as a construction plaque. The cult of this divinity is attested also in Apulum, where a sanctuary or a compartment dedicated to him could exist too. – Archaeological repertory: IDR II, 20. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 156; Nemeti 2005, 255-257.

III.25 Dolichenum

Location: uncertain. – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the existence of a dolichenum is based on the presence of a monumental plaque (109 m x 45 cm). The inscription is dedicated by three sacerdotes of the cohors I sagittariorum. A dolichenum in Drobeta can be argued also by the discovery of a head from a large sized statue representing the divinity. – Archaeological repertory: CCID 173, ILD 53. – Bibliography: Carbó Garcia 2010, 872.

Gherla (Szamosújvár, Neuschloss; jud. Cluj)

Roman auxiliary fort and military vicus in Dacia Porolissensis. The settlement, although well known for its Roman finds since the 16th century, is poorly examined. The systematic excavations since the 1850’s were focusing mostly on the Roman fort. Several finds were attested in reused, secondary position, most of them reused by the Armenian community from the 18th century. The epigraphic and statuary material (Jupiter statue, Hercules Magusanus and Nantosuelta bronze plaque) suggest that a very rich, mostly military Celtic community was present here, which could have several sacralised spaces (Protase / Gudea / Ardevan 2008).

III.26 Sanctuary of the night’s watch

Location: uncertain; on the Corobăi hill, probably as part of the civilian settlement, East of the fort, near the railway (approx. coordinates: 47.017811, 23.903211). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the first publisher, J. Orstein, mentions, that around 1889 three altars were found on a hill, where a circular ruin was attested. The topography of the find indicates, that it was in the periphery of the military settlement, formed East to the fort. One of the inscriptions mentions, the nocturni, the night’s watch and firefighters of the settlement. The place – although it is not yet covered by the modern settlement – was never excavated. – Archaeological repertory: CIL III 12539. 12541. 12543. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 102.

III.27 Sanctuary of Magna Mater/Ceres?

Location: uncertain. – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: a middle sized statue representing Magna Mater were discovered in the territory of Gherla. Unfortunately, Á. Buday, the fist publisher doesn’t mention the exact findspot of the statue. The presumption that there was a sanctuary or space, where Romans worshiped Magna Mater cannot be proved yet. The iconography of the statue is also problematic: while the lions accompanying the goddess from both sides of her throne, the patera in her right hand can be associated also with the representation of Ceres, a divinity which was worshiped within the forts of Micia and Samum too (Popescu 2004, 77-78). – Archaeological repertory: Protase et al. 2008, 78 pl. XXV, 1. – Bibliography: Ota / Szabó 2015.

Grădiștea Muncelui (Gredistye; jud. Hunedoara)

Dacian settlement in the close vicinity of the Dacian capital of Sarmizegetusa Regia. The area was conquered by the Roman army during the two wars of Trajan. A Roman fort was established in this area. It is not sure, how long the fort existed or if it was a civilian settlement in the area too.

III.28 Sanctuary of Victoria/Apollo

Location: uncertain; on a hill called Sub Cununi, few kilometers North from the Roman fort (approx. coordinates: 45.638733, 23.205734). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: two altars were discovered before 1831 on a place called Sub Cununi, where later important Roman finds were noticed too, proving the presence of a possible Roman settlement or statio. The existence of a sanctuary was raised in the 1970’s, based on a passage of Cassius Dio, who mentioned, that emperor Trajan ordered a regular sacrifice on an altar in this area (Dio LXVIII, 8: Opreanu 2000, 163). The inscriptions dedicated to Apollo Augustus and Victoria Augusta suggest, that the shrine or sanctuary was dedicated to the imperial cult. – Archaeological repertory: two inscriptions: IDR III/3, 275-276; large construction blocks and stamped bricks were mentioned by Neigebaur. – Bibliography: Neigebaur 1851, 96-97, no. 24; Opreanu 2000, 162-164; Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 144.

Micia (Vețel, Vecel; jud. Hunedoara)

III.29 Sanctuary of Hercules

Location: uncertain. – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the existence of a sanctuary/dining hall dedicated to Hercules was based on an inscription attested in the 19th century, which mentions the magistri cultorum Herculi (IDR IIII/3, 73). The cult of Hercules is attested on three other inscriptions too, although none of them has an exact provenience. A religious association of Hercules is a rare, but not unique phenomena in the Roman Empire (CIL IX 2679. 4673; X 5386). In Dacia many times the cultores Herculi seems to share the same assembly house with the Bacchic groups, as it was attested in Apulum and Ampelum too. – Archaeological repertory: uncertain; see also: IDR III/3, 72-74; ILD 306. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 148-149; Alicu 2004, 98-106.

III.30 Sanctuary of Silvanus

Location: uncertain. Perhaps on the bank of the river, in the vicinity of the port or at the bureau of the Publicum Portorium Illyrici. – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the existence of a possible sanctuary dedicated to Silvanus is based on the large number (21) of inscriptions found in the territory of the ancient city. A large sized statue representing Silvanus-Pan was also found, although the functionality of the statue can be more a decoration of a villa, than a cultic statue. The provenience of the existing altars shows a large variety of places (baths, principia), but the large number of altars and the nature of dedicants suggest, that a sanctuary of Silvanus existed. One of the altars (IDR III/3, 131) in form of a capital mentions, that an unknown person dedicates 10 libre of silver. Although the addressee is not named, one can suggest that he gave this large amount of sum for an economic association, such as the costum bureau (see also IDR III/3, 102: I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) / Terrae Dac(iae) / et Genio p(opuli) R(omani) / et commerci / Felix Caes(aris) n(ostri) se[r(vus)] / vil(icus) statio(nis) Pont(is) Aug(usti) / promot(us) ex st(atione) Mici(a) / ex vi[cario —]). Another argument to the association between the economical elite and the cult of Silvanus is the presence of Publius Aelius Marus and his large social network attested in the inscriptions. The association of Silvanus and Mercurius suggest also the strict relationship between the bureau and the cult of Silvanus. – Archaeological repertory: uncertain; see also: IDR III/3, 72-74; ILD 306. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 148-149; Alicu 2004, 98-106; Loránd Dészpa 2012, 53-59.

III.31 Dolichenum

Location: uncertain. – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the existence of a dolichenum is based on the presence of a military unit from Commagene and the epigraphic attestation of Jupiter Dolichenus and Turmasgades. One of the altars (IDR III/3, 67) mentions that a dedication for Jupiter was made at the ara miciae, probably a public space. This shows also, that Dolichenian groups – especially in the 3rd century – gained not only imperial or senatorial support, but also larger visibility and publicity, switching from a more intimate, secondary space into a shared, public audience. – Archaeological repertory: uncertain; see also: CCID 159-160; IDR III/3, 138-139 and possibly also IDR III/3, 136. – Bibliography: Alicu 2004, 89.

III.32 Ara Miciae

Location: uncertain. One of the altars attesting the Genius Miciae was found 70 m East from the fort (approx. coordinates: 45.913288, 22.818316). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the existence of a central altar dedicated to the city is attested on a Dolichenian altar (IDR III/3, 67), serving an indirect reference to the existence of a central place of worship, probably in the forum of the city. The worship of the Genius Miciae attested on several altars indicates a strong communal mentality of the citizens of Micia. It is uncertain, if such a place of worship had a dining hall/assembly house or schola, as it was suggested by D. Alicu. – Archaeological repertory: uncertain; see also: IDR III/3, 69-71. – Bibliography: Alicu 2004, 89-94.

III.33 Sanctuary of Nemesis

Location: uncertain; probably in the vicinity of the amphitheatre (approx. coordinates: 45.914949, 22.817598). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the existence of a sacralised space dedicated to Nemesis is based only on the existence of a large military amphitheatre and a small relief fragment dedicated to the divinity. The relief fragment presents a kneeling prisoner, an allusion to the gladiatorial games probably. – Archaeological repertory: uncertain; see also: IDR III/3, 114. – Bibliography: Alicu 2004, 107-111.

Napoca (Cluj-Napoca, Kolozsvár, Klausenburg; jud. Cluj)

Roman civilian settlement and possible procuratorian seat in Dacia Porolissensis. During the reign of Hadrian it became a municipium, later Colonia Aurelia Napocensis. There is no synthesis yet about the Roman city. Most of the epigraphic and statuary material was found in secondary position, built in the houses and churches. The large number of rescue excavations revealed also significant material (fig. 74), which are not yet or partially published (Bodor 1957; 1994; see also Rusu Bolindeț 2007; Diaconescu 2012).

III.34 Sanctuary of Liber Pater

Location: uncertain. Probably on the slope of the Belvedere Hill, close to the Someșul Mic river (approx. coordinates: 46.773447, 23.581851). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the existence of a Liber Pater sanctuary is based on the large number of inscriptions, reliefs, statues and pilasters representing Bacchic motives. An altar (ILD 547) was discovered in the area of the Belvedere/Citadel, outside of the Roman city, while other finds were recorded in the area of the E. Zola/Palatul Poștei area (Bodor 1988, 195). – Archaeological repertory: ILD 547; Lupa 12331, 12375 and numerous reliefs and statuary representations. – Bibliography: Bodor 1957, 103; 1989; Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 161.

III.35 Mithraeum

Location: uncertain. One of the finds was found in the main square of the modern city, on the territory of the Tivoli House, near the Bánffy Palace (Sicoe 2014, 137 citing G. Finály). In the same area, a statuette of Hercules ans Pan was found (Bodor 1988, 196, 199). Later D. Alicu claimed, that in this area could be located a sanctuary of Liber Pater (Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 161). It seems more plausible, that this area, close to the central area of the Roman city was more a representative district, with large urban villas, decorated with rich statuary material and private baths. The statue of Hercules Farnese could indicate this. It is not sure if the Mithraic inscription was found in situ or in a reused position. Opreanu presumed, that the sanctuary was extra-muros, 5 km far from the Roman city (Opreanu 2009). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the existence of a sanctuary can be presumed only on the basis of the few Mithraic finds discovered in the territory of the Roman city, although some of them were recently excluded from the Mithraic repertories, interpreted as dedications for Sol Invictus. – Archaeological repertory: Sicoe 2014, 137 cat. no. 1; see also: Sicoe 2014, 137 cat. no. 2; AE 2010, 1369. – Bibliography: Bodor 1957, 103-104; see also: Opreanu 2009.

III.36 Sanctuary of Dea Syria Caelestis

Location: uncertain. The construction plaque was discovered on the Memorandumului no. 6 (than Unió utca 6-os szám) (approx. coordinates: 46.770070, 23.587669). – Dimensions: unknown. The full length of the construction plaque was around 1.5 m which suggest a large building. – Description: a fragmentarily preserved construction plaque was discovered before 1913. It was dedicated by Aurelius Claudius Nepotianus and his brother to the well being of the emperor Caracalla and his mother in 214 A. D. It is not impossible, that the divinity was worshiped in the dolichenum, as it happened in Apulum too (IDR III/5, 221). – Archaeological repertory: ILD 542. – Bibliography: Alicu 2002, 233-234.

III.37 Dolichenum

Location: uncertain. – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the existence of a dolichenum is based only on the two inscriptions mentioning the cult of Dolichenus in Napoca. One of the inscriptions was found in count Apor’s house in secondary position (CIL III 7659), while the other one (CIL III 7660) was noticed by E. Jakab in the Northern wall of the Óvár. – Archaeological repertory: CCID 140, 141. – Bibliography: Nemeti 2005, 355.

III.38 Sanctuary of Jupiter or Silvanus

Location: under the Central Supermarket, Str. Regele Ferdinand 22-24 (coordinates: 46.772559, 23.589245). – Dimensions: unknown; the archaeological material reported during the rescue excavation suggest a large size building complex. – Description: in this area several inscriptions dedicated for Silvanus were attested. The most important discovery occurred during the building of the Central Supermarket in 1975. During the rescue excavations, several column fragments, capitals and ornamental figures were recovered, together with a monumental altar of 148 cm height (Lupa 15467; ILD 545). The altar is dedicated to Jupiter, Silvanus and all the protecting gods, which can indicate, that in this case we have again, a sacralised space which hosted numerous divinities. Recent excavations under the supermarket revealed further compartments of this building. A part of the Roman road system (decumana and cardo) was identified, which indicates, that this area was close to the forum of the city, probably on the P-ta Unirii, where a Roman bath was also identified in 1822. – Archaeological repertory: unknown; see also: ILD 545. – Bibliography: Bodor 1957, 101-102; Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 150-151; Rusu Bolindeț / Popescu 2012.

III.39 Collegium of a group from Asia Minor/Priapus Pantheus sanctuary

Location: Str. Episcop Ioan Bob (coordinates: 46.768588, 23.587748). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: in 1800/1801 during the construction of the Graeco-Catholic Church (today Invierea Domnului Church), a large sized inscription mentioning a spira Asianorum was discovered, enlisting a large number of members of a collegium from Asia Minor (CIL III 870). In 1846 in the same place, a large, 192 cm high statue of Priapus (Silvanus) Pantheus and a large, 150-160 cm tall Jupiter statue (Tavianus?) was discovered. The place probably served as the seat of an ethnic/religious collegium of the Galatians or other groups from Asia Minor. – Archaeological repertory: unknown; see also: CIL III 860. 870; Neigebaur 1851, 227-228 cat. nos 27-28. – Bibliography: Neigebaur 1851, 227-228; Onofrei 2008; Diaconescu 2014, 66-67.

III.40 Sanctuary of Fortuna Augusta

Location: in the area of Str. Emil Zola and the Franciscan Church (coordinates: 46.772142, 23.589067). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the possible existence of a sacralised space dedicated to Fortuna Augusta is based on the epigraphic material reused in the Dominican (later Franciscan) Church dedicated to the divinity (CIL III 853. 7657) and the large sized statuary representation of the divinity found in the same area in the 1950’s. An antiquarian tradition mentioned also, that the Dominican monastery (dedicated to the Holy Virgin) was built on a Roman temple. The area is close to a rich residential area of the town, in the vicinity of the presumed Roman walls of the city. – Archaeological repertory: unknown; see also: CIL III 853. 7657, Diaconescu 2014, 69-71 cat. nos 37-38. – Bibliography: Benkő 1778, 228;

Peștera Veterani (Peth, Peștera lui Maovaț; jud. Mehedinți)

Natural cave used since the Neolithic, especially in Roman and Medieval times.

III.41 Mithraeum (cave)

Location: natural cave on the bank of the Danube identified already in the 15th century (approx. coordinates: 44.596742, 22.261915). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the existence of a mithraeum (spelaeum) established in the natural cave was raised by the excavators, who carried systematic research in the cave from 1964 till 1969. They identified material evidence from various prehistoric cultures too. The Roman presence was attested through stamped bricks and a today missing altar, with hardly visible inscription. After the excavators, it could belong to Mithras; it is very possible, that the excavators, who were not epigraphists, associated the natural cavity with Mithras, based on their vague knowledge on similar cases and analogies from the Empire. There were no systematic researches since than in the cave. – Archaeological repertory: uncertain; probably an altar dedicated to Mithras. – Bibliography: Pintilie 2000, 235-236; Sicoe 2014, 22.

Peștera lui Traian (Valea Cernei; jud. Mehedinți)

III.42 Mithraeum (cave)

Location: uncertain; visited by F. Cumont in the 19th century, in the valley of the Cerna river – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the existence of a mithraeum (spelaeum) established in the natural cave is based on a short report of F. Cumont, who visited Transylvania in the 19th century. He reported, that local inhabitants shown him a rock installation with altars in a cave, but no further details are known. F. Cumont enrolled the place among the uncertain sanctuaries. – Archaeological repertory: uncertain. – Bibliography: Pintilie 2000, 236.

Pojejena (Alsópozsgás; jud. Caraș-Severin)

Roman auxiliary fort and military vicus on the southern Limes of Dacia Inferior, probably part of Moesia after the Hadrianic period. The presence of the cult of Dolichenus could indicate also, that as in many cases in Dacia, several sanctuaries were established in the vicinity of the auxiliary fort (CCID 172).

III.43 Mithraeum

Location: uncertain. The finds were attested in the Northeast tower of the Roman auxiliary fort, probably from secondary position. Another one was found in the South of the modern settlement (approx. coordinates: 44.779973, 21.597051). – Description: in 1922 a Mithraic relief was found South of the fort, close to the Danube (more than 1 km from the Roman fort), although this could be in secondary position too. Later, in 1976 systematic excavations revealed in the Northeast tower of the fort a deep compartment, with four Mithraic relief fragments. It is not clear, if they were in situ or not. Installing a mithraeum within the fort is a rarity in the whole Roman Empire, although in some cases, such in the House of Laticlavius in Aquincum was attested, when the extension of the fort was probably changed. – Archaeological repertory: Sicoe 2014, 235-240 cat. nos 205-216. – Bibliography: Gudea / Bozu 1978; Pintilie 2000, 238; Boda / Timoc 2016.

Potaissa (Turda, Torda, Thorenburg; jud. Cluj)

III.44 Sanctuary of Liber Pater

Location: uncertain; probably in the Southern part of the Roman fort, in the area of the Str. Zamfirescu no. 5 near the Sind (Sândului) brook (approx. coordinates: 46.562973, 23.776876). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the existence of a Liber Pater sanctuary is based on the numerous epigraphic (12 inscriptions) and figurative (reliefs, statues) sources. One of the statue fragments (CIL III 7683; Lupa 21980) mentions a signum of the divinity, while a statuary group dedicated to Jupiter, Hercules Invictus and Liber Pater was ordered by a sacerdotes, Aurelius Ingenuus (CIL III 7681; Szabó 2007, 58-59). – Archaeological repertory: 12 inscriptions, numerous statues and reliefs. – Bibliography: Bărbulescu 1994, 161.

III.45 Mithraeum

Location: uncertain. Probably in the Southeast slops of the so called Dealul Cetății Hill, in the vicinity of the Roman fort (approx. coordinates: 46.570430, 23.764672). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the existence of a mithraeum in Potaissa is based on the numerous Mithraic finds from the settlement, consisted mostly of altars and reliefs. One of them was bought by I. Téglás in 1905, who mentioned, that it comes from the Southern part of the fort (ILD 505 comments). Two representations of standing statues representing Mithras or a so called Mithraic genius seems to be implausible, although it would indicate a more strict relationship with Poetovio, where a vexillation of the V. Macedonica legion from Potaissa is well attested (The theory of S. Nemeti and I. Nemeti on the so called Mithraic genius from Potaissa was contested by A. Diaconescu: 2014, 75-77.). An altar dedicated by a certain Hermadio was found in the same area as the other Mithraic finds (ILD 492) which could indicate the Mithraic nature of this inscription too. – Archaeological repertory: Sicoe 2014, 138-144, cat. nos 4-13; see also: Diaconescu 2014, 75-77. 80; ILD 492. – Bibliography: Bărbulescu 1994, 70; Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 156.

III.46 Dolichenum

Location: uncertain. Probably in the East part of the so called Dealul Cetății Hill, in the vicinity of the Roman fort and one of the cemeteries, on the I. Rațiu (former Jósika M. Street) (approx. coordinates: 46.569902, 23.781638). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the existence of a dolichenum in Potaissa is based on the three altars dedicated to the divinity and two fragments of a so called Dolichenian bronze triangulum, used in rituals within a sacralised space. One of the altars (CCID 144; ILD 479) was found at the Jósika street, near a Roman cemetery (Arch. Ért. 1908, 360). – Archaeological repertory: CCID 142-145; see also: Nemeti 2005, 363-364 cat. nos 241-245. – Bibliography: Bărbulescu 1994, 162-163; Nemeti 2005, 229.

III.47 Iseum

Location: uncertain; probably close to the river. M. Bărbulescu claimed, that because the head of a monumental statue of Serapis was found around the fort (probably in the baths), the Iseum should be located in the vicinity of this. In my opinion, the cult of Serapis in baths or in forts could be related to the valetudinarium or other healing divinities, attested often in military contexts. – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the existence of an iseum in Potaissa is based on the large number of various aegyptiaca found in Turda since the 18th century. One of the inscriptions (CIL III 882; RICIS 616/0102) mentions a collegium Isidis and a pater of the group, C. Iulius Martialis. The presence of a pseudo-hieroglyphic stele proves also the existence of a building dedicated to the Isiac cults. – Archaeological repertory: CIL III 881, 882, numerous bronze statuettes (Harpocrates, Anubis, Osiris, Sphinx), representations of Apis bull, pseudo-hieroglyphic stele. – Bibliography: Bărbulescu 1994, 164-166; Deac 2014; 2015 [non vidi].

III.48 Sanctuary of Saturnus

Location: uncertain; on the Eastern slope of the Dealul Șuia Hill, south to Dealul Zănelor (approx. coordinates: 46.560008, 23.769400). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the existence of a sanctuary dedicated to Saturnus and the African divinities is based on an accidental find occurred around 1978. Aurel Nemeș, a local citizen discovered a monumental statue base dedicated to Saturnus and Latona (Saturno regi patri deorum et Latonae; ILD 463) with a relatively well preserved statue of a Saturnus tonans still on the base – a rarity in Roman archaeology. Beside this, he described an anepigraphic altar and several fragments of conducts too. The position of the statue and the intact nature on the base indicates, that in this area was a sanctuary. The dedication was made by Publius Recius Primus beneficiarius legati legionis V Macedonicae. He also mentions his African origins (domo Zigali afer). – Archaeological repertory: ILD 463, an altar without inscription and several conduct parts. – Bibliography: Bărbulescu 1994, 70; Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 157; Nemeti 2005, 108-110. 337 cat. no. 81.

Războieni-Cetate (Székelyföldvár, Ocna Mureș; jud. Alba)

Auxiliary fort and military vicus in Dacia Superior. Numerous Roman finds were known already from the early 19th century, some of them probably from the fort and the cemetery of the vicus. The cult of Epona was also attested by an epigraphic relief (ILD 417). No sacralised spaces were excavated yet. The best record of the finds – most of them already disappeared – was published by Neigebaur who saw the collection of count Sámuel Kemény: Neigebaur 1851, 243-245.

III.49 Sanctuary (Apollo?)

Location: uncertain; in the vicinity of the Roman auxiliary fort (approx. coordinates: 46.412506, 23.863536). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: in 1859 Sámuel Löventhal discovered on his field in the vicinity of the modern settlement of Székelyföldvár a large amount of Roman artefacts. The nature of the objects indicates indeed, a sacralised space, although it is insecure, if they come from the same place. The possibility of an Apollo sanctuary was based on the large sized plaque found among the finds (IDR III/4, 73). – Archaeological repertory: at least ten artefacts reported. Among the finds there was a relief representing Hercules, another representing Apollo (IDR III/4, 72), a fragment of a large size plaque (IDR III/4, 73), a relief representing probably Asclepius or Jupiter and a Bacchic relief. – Bibliography: Neigebaur 1851, 243-244; Torma 1860; Gudea 1997, 105-106; Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 126.

Romula (Reșca, Dobrosloveni; jud. Olt)

Important Roman auxiliary fort and settlement. The vicus became a municipium and later colonia during the reign of Septimius Severus. As the financial capital of Dacia Inferior numerous troops were attested: Cohors I Flavia Commagenorum, Numerum Surorum, vexilationes legio VII Claudia, legio XXII Primigenia, legio XI Claudia Pia Fidelis. The presence of Syrian groups are attested on numerous inscriptions, one with particular importance attesting the cult of Atargatis in Palmyrene language. Similarly, the cult of Jupiter Turmasgades, an avatar of Dolichenus was attested. The place of worship of these divinities are not attested yet. The cult of the Nymphs and Isis indicate also specific sacralised places and not necessary domestic environments (IDR II, 329-348. – See also Gudea 1997, 85-87; Nemeti 2005, 320).

III.50 Mithraeum

Location: uncertain; it was attested on the bank of the Teslui river (approx. coordinates: 44.168757, 24.394470). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the existence of a sanctuary is based on the significant number of votive offerings dedicated to Mithras and the short report of a priest, called Martin from 1856, later published by Alex. Popovici. He mentions a “round” sanctuary, where offerings were made. A presence of a fountain was also reported. The territory was never excavated, the topography of Romula – although it should be an important Roman settlement in Dacia Inferior – is one of the less known from Dacia (Amon 2012). – Archaeological repertory: Sicoe 2014, cat. nos 231-238; see also: CIMRM 2170. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 78-81; Sicoe 2014, 246-250.

III.51 Sanctuary of Magna Mater-Cybele

Location: uncertain (approx. coordinates: 44.1687, 24.3944). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the existence of a sanctuary is based on two votive offerings dedicated to Magna Mater, although her cult could exist also in domestic environments. The exact findspot of the objects are uncertain, in 1933 the statue was already in the collection of Maria Istrati-Capșa. Both monuments are of small size, which indicate or a small, shared or a domestic environment and not necessary a sanctuary. A possible representation of Attis on a vase was recently identified from Romula. – Archaeological repertory: a fragmentarily preserved marble relief and a beautifully elaborated marble statue. – Bibliography: Tudor 1933, 76; CCCA VI, 475-476; Alexandrescu 2006; Szabó / Ota 2015, 236.

Samum (Ad Samum, Cășeiu, Alsókosály; jud. Cluj)

III.52 Ceres sanctuary

Location: uncertain. Probably in one of the horrea near the principa of the auxiliary fort (approx. coordinates: 47.186084, 23.837362). – Dimensions: uncertain; the horreum had a 36.5 m x 10 m dimension. – Description: during the systematic excavations of 1992, two statues representing Ceres were found. One of the statues had also a fragmentarily inscription, which identify certainly the divinity (AE 2010, 1364). The iconography of the statues shows a stricing similarity with those find in Gherla (jud. Cluj), interpreted in that case, as Magna Mater. This could indicate a special choice of the troops in Dacia Porolissensis within the auxiliary fort, worshiping the goddess of fertility and agriculture, often associated with the imperial cult, Peace and prosperity of the Empire too (Popescu 2004, 77-78). – Archaeological repertory: two statues of Ceres, one of them with inscription (AE 2010, 1364). – Bibliography: Isac 2003, 176; Popescu 2004, 77; ILD 777.

III.53 Dolichenum

Location: uncertain; probably in the vicinity of the fort (approx. coordinates: 47.1860, 23.8373). – Dimensions: uncertain. – Description: the existence of a dolichenum from Samum is based on the reinterpretation of an inscription on a construction plaque, dedicated by a pontifex of Porolissum. Three other inscriptions attesting also the presence of the cult. While in other auxiliary forts, such in Gherla or Arcobadara the material evidence suggest a more domestic worship of the divinity, in the case of Samum the presence of a sanctuary seems plausible. – Archaeological repertory: four inscriptions (ILD 769-772). – Bibliography: CCID 130-132; Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 154; Nemeti 2005, 354; Carbó Garcia 2010, 185-188.

Sarmizegetusa (Colonia Sarmizegetusa, Várhely; jud. Hunedoara)

III.54 Ara Augusti

Location: Extra muros, in the middle of the area sacra, between the Asklepieion and the Great Temple (coordinates: 45.516760, 22.787897; fig. 75). – Dimensions: it had a rectangular form of around 10 m x 10 m. – Description: the existence of an Ara Augusti was long time ago presumed by older literature. Recently, geophysical measurements taken in 2004-2007 identified a rectangular form in the middle of the area sacra, which could belong to a large altar base. Based on the epigraphic dedications of the sacerdoti Ara Augusti coronatus trium Daciarum, I. Piso, Á. Szabó and A. Schäfer presumed, that the Ara Augusti and the Forum Provinciae should be in the same place. Other authors presumed, that the discovery of a golden bronze representation of the emperor Decius, Victoria and several altars found in the vicinity of the amphitheatre indicates, that the forum provinciae was not East, but West to the amphitheatre. – Archaeological repertory: fragments of monumental inscriptions and bronze letters were found in the territory of Colonia Sarmizegetusa, which could belong to the Ara Augusti. Similarly, the famous inscription attesting the votorum carmen of emperor Trajan was probably decorating the large altar (IDR III/2, 241); see also: Diaconescu 2014, 15-16, IDR III/2, 93-94. – Bibliography: Schäfer 2006; Fiedler / Höpken 2010; Boda 2015, 288 fig. 7, 19.

III.55 Sanctuaries in the North-Eastern area sacra

Location: In the North part of the area sacra, next to the Domnus et Domna sanctuary (approx. coordinates: 45.517948, 22.787760; fig. 76). – Dimensions: uncertain. The two small buildings seems to have similar sizes as the Domnus et Domna shrine of 4 m x 4 m. – Description: the two small buildings were identified in 2007 after the geophysical survey of an international, German-Romanian collaboration. The site was not excavated, but due to the position of the buildings in the very heart of the area sacra, one can presume, that they served also as sacralised spaces dedicated to some divinities. Further research will hopefully contribute to the identification of these buildings. – Archaeological repertory: unknown. – Bibliography: Fiedler / Höpken 2010, 334; Boda 2015a, 288 fig. 7, 14.

III.56 Mithraeum

Location: uncertain. – Dimensions: uncertain. – Description: the existence of a second or even multiple mithraea is the capital of the province was raised by D. Alicu, based on an inscription found in 1880, before the discovery of the famous sanctuary in 1882. The construction plaque mentions the name of the divinity as Invictus, which doesn’t make sure the Mithraic nature of the find. It was dedicated to the health and memory of Sextus Valerius, decurio of the city. This habit, to keep the memory of a leading member of a religious group was attested also in Poetovio in Mithraic context. Further excavations and field research will need to confirm the existence of several mithrea in Sarmizegetusa. – Archaeological repertory: unknown; see also: IDR III/2, 226. – Bibliography: Alicu 2002, 221-222.

III.57 Dolichenum

Location: uncertain. Probably annexed to the city wall, in the South part of the Roman city, close to the famous mithraeum discovered by Király (approx. coordinates: 45.510020, 22.784855). – Dimensions: uncertain. – Description: the first Dolichenian find occurred already in the 16th century. The existence of a dolichenum in Sarmizegetusa was presumed already by G. Téglás and G. Kuun in the 19th century. They reported, that a sanctuary was discovered in 1884 next to the southern corner of the city wall. G. Téglás reported, that the Dolichenus sanctuary was found within the city walls, annexed to the southern corner “with the typical finds of the divinity”. Unfortunately, no systematic excavations were carried in that area till now. – Archaeological repertory: unknown; see also: CCID 164-170; IDR III/2, 201-204. – Bibliography: Boda 2015a.

III.58 Sanctuary of Hekate

Location: uncertain. – Dimensions: uncertain. – Description: the existence of a Hekate sanctuary is based on the large size cult statue of the divinity found in the capital of the province and the numerous figurative and epigraphic sources attesting her cult. In one of his short reports, J.Banó mentioned, that beside the inscription mentioning the cult of Hekate from Sarmizegetusa, he saw in the museum of the local priest also a statue of 40 cm representing a goddess with three faces (Piso / Szabó forthcoming).The famous statue of Hekate Triformis from the Muzeul Național Brukenthal, attested at Ocna Mureșului is still under debate, if it comes from Apulum, Sarmizegetusa or from a local sanctuary of Salinae (Diaconescu 2014, 85). – Archaeological repertory: unknown; see also: IDR III/2, 220, Lupa 17663. – Bibliography: Carboni 2015. – Piso / Szabó forthcoming.

III.59 Sanctuary of Theos Hypsistos

Location: uncertain. – Dimensions: uncertain. – Description: the existence of a sanctuary dedicated to Deus Aeternus is indicated by a carefully elaborated marble plaque of a building (IDR III/2, 190) mentioning the cult of Deus Aeternus, Iuno and the Angels and the several epigraphic attestation of the divinity. – Archaeological repertory: unknown; see also: IDR III/2, 187-190. – Bibliography: Carbó Garcia 2010, 905-908.

Săcelu (jud. Gorj)

Roman settlement with important bath complex. Few short term excavations were carried on outside of the Roman bath in the vicus. No sacralised spaces were discovered yet (Tudor 1978, 227).

III.60 Healing sanctuary

Location: uncertain. In the vicinity of the Roman baths on the sport called în Blaniță (approx. coordinates: 45.081175, 23.54660). – Dimensions: uncertain. – Description: the existence of a possible sanctuary formed around the natural mineral springs of the settlement is based on the presence of the cult of the healing divinities, Aesculapius and Hygeia. Archaeological excavations identified a Roman bath and a civilian settlement, probably in the vicinity of an auxiliary fort. – Archaeological repertory: IDR II, 182.

Slăveni (jud. Olt)

III.61 Liber Pater sanctuary

Location: uncertain. – Dimensions: uncertain. – Description: the existence of a Liber Pater sanctuary is based on the large amount of statuary fragments found in the vicinity of the Roman fort. – Archaeological repertory: Bondoc 2004, 68-72.

Sucidava (Celei; jud. Olt)

III.62 Mithraeum

Location: uncertain. – Dimensions: uncertain. – Description: the existence of a mithraeum is based on the significant number of Mithraic reliefs and inscriptions attested in Sucidava. – Archaeological repertory: Sicoe 2014, 255-257 cat. nos 248-251; see also the comments on ILD 106. 110. – Bibliography: Sicoe 2014, 255-257.

III.63 Dolichenum

Location: uncertain. – Dimensions: uncertain. – Description: the existence of a dolichenum can be presumed only on the basis of one single inscription attesting the cult of Dolichenus. This is not a strong argument yet for the existence of a sanctuary, but the great number of soldiers, the presence of the cohors II Chalcidenorum sagittaria and the size of the settlement can indicate this. – Archaeological repertory: CCID 177; see also: ILD 109. – Bibliography: Carbó Garcia 2010, 202.

Teliucu Inferior (Alsótelek; jud. Hunedoara)

Roman civilian settlement in Dacia Superior, administrative centre of the iron mines of Dacia (conductores ferrariarum Dacicarum). Although important Roman constructions were attested in the 19th century, no systematic excavations were made.

III.64 Sanctuary

Location: unknown (approx. coordinates: 45.717545, 22.874022). – Dimensions: 2 m x 2 m, near a monumental building which measures 18 m x 25 m. – Description: in 1904 Gábor Téglás discovered the ruins of a Roman officium, measuring 18 m x 25 m and two other smaller compartments. In one of the small rooms (2x 2 m) he found an altar dedicated by two magistrates from Apulum and Sarmizegetusa, serving in Teliucu as conductores ferrariarum. Although the settlement should be a very important one, being the centre of the iron mining area of Dacia, it was never systematically excavated. – Archaeological repertory: IDR III/3, 37; Szabó 2007, 79 cat. no. D 51. – Bibliography: Hirt 2010.

Tibiscum (Jupa, Zsuppa/ Iaz-Obreja, Obrézsa; jud. Caraș-Severin)

III.65 Dolichenum

Location: in the North part of the fort, near the Roman road (coordinates: 45.468047, 22.188881; fig. 77). – Dimensions: trapezoidal building with several compartments, measuring 16 m x 16.5 m. – Description: the building excavated in 1965, is known as building no. III was part of the vicus militaris, in the close vicinity of the fort. It has an irregular shape, with three small compartments in the West and two others in front of it. The middle and the biggest one is divided by a wall, which could belong to another phase of the building mentioned by M. Moga in his unpublished archaeological journals cited by Alicu and others. Similarly to Porolissum and Aquae, in Tibiscum seems also a rule, that along the road extra muros of the Roman fort several sacralised spaces (Liber Pater templum) was established. In one of the compartments, a fragmentarily preserved column was found (IDR III/1, 140). A head of a monumental Jupiter statue was also associated with this building, although M. Moga did not mention the provenience, while the later researchers interpreted this statue in various ways. Ardeț claims, based on the report of F. Medeleț, that the head was not found in the building no. III (Ardeț / Ardeț 2004, 87 note 160). D. Benea claims that the statue representing Dolichenus, was found there (Boda / Timoc 2016.) – Archaeological repertory: IDR III/1, 140, possibly a representation of Jupiter tonans (Benea / Bona 1994, 109-110) and a head of a monumental statue representing Jupiter Dolichenus; see also: IDR III/1, 139. – Bibliography: Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 102-104; Ardeț / Ardeț 2004, 86-90; Boda / Timoc 2016.

III.66 Mithraeum

Location: unknown. – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: the possible existence of a mithraeum is based only on the presence of two Mithraic finds from the settlement. A famous altar dedicated by one of the most well known religious entrepreneurs of the cult, Hermadio actor was associated with Tibiscum (IDR III/1, 145), while a Mithraic relief was recently localised in Tibiscum. Till further researches, the presence of a mithraeum in Tibiscum is hypothetical. – Archaeological repertory: IDR III/1, 145, Sicoe 2014, 243 cat. nos 203-204. – Bibliography: Boda-Timoc 2016.

Valea Sângeorgiului (Szentgyörgyválya; jud. Hunedoara)

Roman settlement or more probably, a villa where several altars were discovered. It is not sure if these finds are coming from a sanctuary or a domestic context.

III.67 Sanctuary

Location: on the Gugutoi hill, Northeast to the modern settlement, on the bank of the Bercsán brook (approx. coordinates: 45.748074, 23.074759). – Dimensions: unknown. – Description: around 1890, Gábor Téglás, the pioneer of archaeology in Hunyad county, identified a spot on the Gugutoi hill, where he found ruins of Roman buildings, bricks, sculpture fragments and three altars. There were no systematic excavations on the site. – Archaeological repertory: IDR III/3, 17-19. – Bibliography: Szabó forthcoming.

[1] Pescaru / Alicu 2000, 11-31. – See also Stamper 2005; 2014.

[2] Nielsen 2014.

[3] Andringa 2012; Raja / Rüpke 2015a. – See also Gasparini 2015.

[4] See also the case study of Desa: CCID 176.

[5] Some of the important settlements from countryside with singular or more votive finds: Gudea 2009, 260-261. The number of mithraea in Dacia could be also much higher: Oltean 2007, 218; Sicoe 2014, 168-169 and 245. – See also Bărbulescu 1998; Pop 1998; Opreanu 2008.

[6] Marcu 2009. On the places of worship in the forts of Dacia see: Marcu 2004.

[7] Scheid / Polignac 2010. See also Introduction.

[8] Quinn / Wilson 2013.

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